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Parlamentarna zakonodaja

Parlamentarna zakonodaja


Glavne parlamentarne vlade in njihovo delovanje

Parlamentarna vlada je sistem, v katerem se pooblastila izvršilne in zakonodajne veje med seboj prepletajo in ne ločujejo kot kontrolo moči drug drugega, kot to zahtevajo ameriški očetje v ameriški ustavi. Pravzaprav svojo moč črpa izvršna veja v parlamentarni vladi neposredno iz zakonodajna veja. To je zato, ker najvišjega vladnega uradnika in člane njegovega kabineta ne izberejo volivci, kot je to v predsedniškem sistemu v ZDA, ampak člani zakonodajnega telesa. Parlamentarne vlade so pogoste v Evropi in na Karibih, po svetu pa so pogostejše kot predsedniške oblike vladavine.


Zgodovina parlamentarnega arhiva

Nekaj ​​obiskovalcev Westminsterja, ki vidijo Viktorijin stolp, ki se dviga na južnem koncu parlamenta, se zaveda svoje funkcije. Sredi 19. stoletja ga je zgradil Sir Charles Barry za hrambo zgodovinskih zapisov Parlamenta in od takrat naprej služi temu namenu. Zgodba teh zapisov je zgodba o spominu na parlament.

Olimpijske medalje in spominki iz zbirk parlamentarnih olimpijcev

Raziščite različne zbirke iz parlamentarnega arhiva

Podcast, ki pojasnjuje, kaj dela parlamentarni arhiv in storitve, ki jih ponujajo

Zgodnja dejanja, znani zapisi. Več o nekaterih fascinantnih zapisih poiščite v parlamentarnem arhivu

Parlamentarni arhiv ima zanimivo zgodovino. Poiščite najboljše vire na to temo, ki vam bodo pomagali izvedeti več

Preberite o zgodovini neverjetnih zapisov Parlamenta, od srednjega veka do danes

Kronologija ključnih trenutkov v zgodovini arhiva, od prvih zapisov lordovega doma leta 1497 do danes

Odkrijte resnično funkcijo te znamenite londonske znamenitosti: shranjevanje več kot 500 let zgodovine parlamenta


Zakonodaja in predlogi zakona

Predlogi zakonov in zakonodaje določajo predloge novih zakonov in načrte za spremembo obstoječih zakonov, ki so predloženi v razpravo Parlamentu.

Bodite na tekočem z napredkom sedanjih in osnutkov zakonov, preden bo Parlament prebral celotna besedila aktov Parlamenta in izvedel podrobnosti delegirane zakonodaje, ki spreminja zakone po obstoječih aktih.

Celotno besedilo javnih, zasebnih in hibridnih zakonov ter njihov napredek v Parlamentu vključuje akte, sprejete na tej seji

Vlada vsako sejo v obliki osnutka objavi številne zakone, ki omogočajo posvetovanje, preden se zakon uradno izda

Delegirana zakonodaja omogoča vladi, da spreminja zakon z uporabo pooblastil, podeljenih z zakonom Parlamenta

Več o celotnem besedilu javnih splošnih aktov iz leta 1988 in vseh lokalnih (zasebnih) aktov iz leta 1991, kot so bili prvotno sprejeti


Spletna mesta

Poiščite zakonodajo od leta 1267 do danes na zakonodaji.gov.uk, uradni spletni strani UK ’s.

Za celovit prikaz parlamentarne politike v Angliji, takratni Veliki Britaniji, od njihovega nastanka v 13. stoletju, si oglejte spletno stran History of Parliament.

Poiščite arhiv Times in digitalni arhiv Guardian and Observer, če si želite ogledati članke (£) o parlamentarnih postopkih.

Na spletni strani Hansard poiščite uradna poročila o vseh parlamentarnih razpravah, tako v spodnjem domu kot v lordovem domu, od leta 1803 dalje. Iščete lahko po datumu in ključni besedi. Vse razprave še niso prepisane.

Poiščite britansko zgodovino na spletu za revije lordskega doma, revije spodnjega doma in drugo parlamentarno gradivo od leta 1509 do 1834.

Knjige

Oglejte si serijo The House of Commons (Zgodovina parlamentarnega sklada, 1964 naprej).

Preberite kratek vodnik po evidencah parlamenta Mauricea Bonda (Zavod za evidenco House of Lords, 1980).


ZGODOVINA KRUNE IN PARLAMENTA

Odnos med angleško krono in parlamentom v zgodnji moderni Angliji je bil predmet velike razprave v britanski zgodovini. Do sedemdesetih let je prevladujoče zgodovinopisje videlo, da se je skupščinski dom sredi sedemnajstega stoletja od zarodne oblasti pod Henrikom VIII odpravil naprej do izvršilne oblasti, nato pa do slavne revolucije, ki jo je vodil parlament, preden se je na koncu pojavil pozno viktorijanski model parlamentarne vlade. . Ta vigovski pogled na parlamentarno zgodovino, ki ga je najbolj zgovorno zagovarjal S. R. Gardiner, so najprej izpodbijali marksistični zgodovinarji, ki so na državljansko vojno in parlamentarne napetosti gledali kot na meščansko revolucijo. Vendar je marksistična interpretacija spodletela, ker je državljansko vojno bolje razložiti kot aristokratski in/ali verski upor in ker ni prišlo do širše ali trajne družbene revolucije. Poleg tega so se odnosi med parlamentom in krono leta 1660 vrnili v stanje pred državljansko vojno pred –.

Temeljnejši izziv interpretacije Whig je vodila raznolika skupina revizionistov, zlasti Geoffrey Elton, Conrad Russell in Kevin Sharpe. Poudarili so konsenz in ne konflikt kot primarni način razlage odnosa med krono in parlamentom. Predvsem Elton in Russell sta Parlament videla kot učinkovito, poslovno institucijo, v kateri je bil konflikt pogosto bolj posledica nerazumevanja kot sovražnosti ali tekmovanja za oblast. Sharpe pa je videl, kakšen konflikt je v Parlamentu posledica konkurenčnih frakcij. Od poznih osemdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja je ta revizionistični pogled nianziral delo znanstvenikov, kot so Thomas Cogswell, Ann Hughes in Richard Cust. Po njihovem "postrevizionističnem" stališču sta bila prisotna temeljna napetost in konflikt, vendar se je ponavadi pojavil le v času politične krize —, na primer med slabim vodenjem vojne proti Franciji in Španiji s strani Karla I v poznih 1620 -ih .


Povzetek

V finskem parlamentarizmu je vlada pripravljalni in izvršilni organ, ki pripravlja gradivo, ki ga Parlament obravnava, odobri ali zavrne. Gradivo se dvakrat predloži predsedniku, običajno pa ne pride do sporov med predsednikom in vlado ali med predsednikom in parlamentom. Spor med parlamentom in vlado lahko povzroči padec vlade. Od osemdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja so vlade tako močne, da jih opozicija nikakor ne more zrušiti. Ustavne reforme so okrepile napredek v smeri večinskega parlamentarizma. Dejansko vlade običajno zasedajo ves svoj štiriletni mandat. Parlament je močno odvisen od zakonov, ki mu jih je predložila vlada. Vlada mora Parlamentu na več načinov nenehno poročati o tem, kaj počne in kam gre, vendar nadzoruje dnevno politično agendo.

Finska je članica Evropske unije od leta 1995. Članstvo je Parlamentu in vladi dalo nove obveznosti in nove vloge, ki vsake toliko oživijo vprašanje njihovega odnosa s predsednikom, ki vodi zunanjo politiko države v sodelovanju z Vlada. Vloga predsednika vlade je postala močnejša skupaj s članstvom v EU ter podporo ustavnih reform in dolgotrajnih vlad. Parlament ima prek velikega parlamentarnega odbora dostop do zadev EU, ki jih pripravlja vlada, vsako stališče Velikega odbora pa je za politiko zavezujoče za vlado.

V vrsti partijskega in konsenzusno usmerjenega parlamentarizma, ki se izvaja na Finskem, so lahko politične koalicije velike in nekonvencionalne. Medstrankarski odnosi lahko zasenčijo formalne institucionalne. Odločanje zahteva oblikovanje koalicij in sprejemanje kompromisov. Danes je za finsko politiko značilen pragmatizem in močna nagnjenost k soglasju - dejavnikom, ki niso bili vedno prisotni. Ta položaj omejuje stopnjo svobode, ki jo imajo stranke, da artikulirajo svoje ideologije ali programe in jih izvajajo.

Za finski parlamentarizem je značilna velika prilagodljivost, zlasti pri sestavljanju koalicij za sestavo vlade. To postane očitno pred volitvami, saj se stranke vnaprej ne odločijo, s katerimi strankami so pripravljene sestati vlado. V praksi se vlada sestavi med strankami, ki se lahko dogovorijo o skupnem vladnem programu. Program ni le deklaracija, ki je bila Parlamentu predstavljena kot izjava vlade na začetku vladnega mandata. Gre za akcijski načrt, ki vsebuje cilje, za katere je vlada določila, da jih bo dosegla.

Politični ritem na Finskem določajo parlamentarne volitve vsaka štiri leta in predsedniške volitve vsakih šest let. Medtem ko niti nova ustava tega dejstva ne priznava, parlamentarizem nekaj energije in dinamike dobiva od vedno budnih novic, od pritiskovnih skupin ter od internacionalizacije politike in globalizacije gospodarstva.

Avtor Jarmo Laine, višji znanstveni svetovalec na Finski akademiji, april 2015, nazadnje urejeno junija 2019


Parlamentarni vpliv v zakonodajnem postopku in povzetek pregleda literature#8211

Ko sem preučil namen pregleda literature in kako ga opraviti ter opravil prvotno iskanje literature, sem na podlagi predhodnega branja začel pisati uvod v svoj pregled literature.

To je mišljeno kot delovni osnutek, ki je bil razvit tako, da na papir zapiše nekaj svojih misli o literaturi, ki sem jo do sedaj prebral, in da pomaga oblikovati različne sestavine pregleda literature. Moj namen je, da ta osnutek občasno ponovno pregledam in ga posodobim, ko se moje razmišljanje razvija. Vsak povzetek v uvodu se bo razvil v svoj samostojni odsek, na primer tisti, ki sem ga že razvil o zakonodajnih tipologijah.

PREGLED LITERATURE – Doktorska tema: “Kaj vplivajo parlamenti (zlasti glede škotskega parlamenta) na zakonodajni postopek? ”

Zakaj študirati parlamente in zakonodajni postopek? Pomembne spremembe javnega reda pogosto zahtevajo spremembe zakona. Te spremembe zakona (ali oblikovanje novega zakona) pa mora skoraj vedno potrditi parlament. To postavlja parlament na ključno točko v procesu oblikovanja politike. Parlamenti običajno uvedejo postopek, skozi katerega mora predložiti predlog zakona, preden ga sprejme. Ta postopek daje parlamentom možnost, da vplivajo, spreminjajo in celo zavrnejo osnutke zakonov.

Kako torej izgleda ta zakonodajni postopek in kakšen vpliv imajo parlamenti v zakonodajnem postopku? Z manj abstraktnim vprašanjem, ko so bili predlogi parlamentov vloženi osnutki zakonov, na primer uvesti prepoved kajenja na javnih mestih, kaj je ta predlog zakona naredil, kako so parlamenti obravnavali osnutek zakona in kakšen vpliv so imeli nanj preden je bil dokončno sprejet? To je osnovno vprašanje, ki ga je treba obravnavati s tem doktoratom znanosti. Jasno je, da bi bilo nemogoče izvesti primerjalno analizo vsakega parlamenta in vsakega zakona. Namesto tega bo izvedena študija primera škotskega parlamenta, ki se bo osredotočila na njegov zakonodajni postopek in poskušala ugotoviti vpliv, ki ga je imel na primere zakonodaje, ki jo je obdelal. Škotski parlament v sodobni obliki obstaja le od leta 1999, vendar je v tem kratkem času prišlo do koalicijske, manjšinske in večinske oblike vlade. Zato daje priložnost za razmislek, ali se odgovor na raziskovalno vprašanje s časom spreminja in nanj vplivajo različni odnosi med parlamentom in vlado. Čeprav bodo osredotočena na en sam parlament, bodo vprašanja, ki jih obravnava doktorat, postavljena v širši primerjalni kontekst in upoštevala posledice za parlamente na splošno. Literatura o parlamentih na splošno je obsežna, vendar je relativno omejena glede posebnih vprašanj parlamentarnega vpliva v zakonodajnem postopku. Nekatera teoretična in raziskovalna orodja so verjetno tudi zastarela in ta doktorat bo poskušal prispevati k razvoju obeh.

Uvod

Študentom, ki so se v zakonodajnem postopku lotili preučevanja parlamentarnega vpliva, bi lahko odpustili, da so hitro obupali. Propad parlamentov je že dolgo ugotovljen. Njihova študija, zlasti primerjalna, je lahko zelo težka. Od funkcij, ki jih opravljajo, se zakonodajna zakonodaja po pomembnosti pogosto uvršča na dno. Sami parlamenti običajno predlagajo malo zakonodaje. Od zakonodaje, ki so jo začeli drugi (vlada), so parlamenti običajno izključeni iz procesa oblikovanja politike. Ko se zakonodaja končno predstavi parlamentom v odobritev, se njihova vloga pogosto razume kot gumijast žig. Končno so bili parlamenti zastopani pri spremljanju izvajanja novih zakonov.

Zakaj bi se torej trudili? Kljub zgoraj predstavljeni negativni sliki so parlamenti v političnih sistemih vseprisotni. Obsežne posplošitve o upadu parlamentov neizogibno padajo v izjeme od tega pravila (npr. Ameriški kongres). Digitalna doba pomeni, da so podatki o parlamentih vse lažje dostopni in odprti za raziskovalne manipulacije. Večina parlamentov ni ustanovljenih kot pobudniki zakonodaje, zato ne bi smelo biti presenečenje, če jim ne uspe teoretični ideal. Dejstvo pa je, da v veliki večini primerov brez izrecnega soglasja parlamentov ni mogoče bistveno spremeniti zakona. Parlamenti se lahko včasih vključijo v razvoj politike. Tudi če tega ne storijo, se oblikovanje politike pogosteje dogaja v okolju, ki je implicitno ali izrecno legitimirano z obstojem parlamentov. Vse bolj izpopolnjene metode analize dokazujejo, da je lahko parlamentarni učinek med zakonodajnim postopkom večji, kot se običajno misli. Nazadnje obstajajo dokazi, da so parlamenti še vedno zainteresirani za zakone, ki so jih sprejeli.

Utemeljitev doktorata

Ta doktorat izhaja iz predpostavke, da je parlamentarni sprejem zakonodaje pojav, ki ga je vredno preučiti, in da je treba še veliko odkriti, kakšen vpliv imajo parlamenti na zakonodajo, ki jo obdelujejo, in kako lahko ta vpliv prepoznamo in opišemo. Če ne bomo vsaj preučili procesa in razvili orodij, ki nam bodo omogočila merjenje parlamentarnega vpliva in vpliva, smo lahko res prepričani, da ni nič vrednega vedeti?

Ključne teme pregleda literature

Za postavitev posebnega raziskovalnega vprašanja v širši kontekst parlamenta in javne politike bo pregled literature podrobneje obravnaval številna vprašanja:

  • Dojemanje propada parlamentov – Bryce in drugi so prispevali k trajni zgodovinski paradigmi poslabšanja parlamenta iz "zlate dobe"#8217. Sodobni ekvivalent (na primer Richardson in Jordan) postavlja "postparlamentarno demokracijo", kjer velikih odločitev dneva očitno ne sprejema niti parlament niti v njih. To stališče je izpodbijal (na primer sodnik) in ugotovil, da tisti, ki želijo odpraviti poudarek na pomenu parlamentov, pogosto zmanjšajo simbolične in legitimirajoče funkcije parlamentarnega zastopstva. Na to temo so Packenham in drugi poudarili, da je večnamenska narava parlamentov ključnega pomena za popolno razumevanje njihove vloge in vpliva v njihovem političnem sistemu. Torej ugotovitev upada ene funkcije (na primer zakonodajne) ne pomeni nujno, da je parlament kot institucija nepomemben. Drugi, na primer Norton, so opazili jasno neravnovesje med sredstvi parlamenta in vlade v večini političnih sistemov ter potrebo po realnosti glede vloge, ki jo lahko parlament v tem kontekstu opravlja. Torej, kaj to pomeni za raziskovalno vprašanje? Empirična analiza parlamentov je potrebna za zbiranje dokazov za dokazovanje ali izpodbijanje dojemanja upada in obrobne vloge ter, tudi če je dokazano, za razumevanje posledic za vlogo parlamentov v zakonodajnem postopku.
  • Struktura parlamentov in zakonodajna funkcija – Glede na splošno dojemanje upada je vzdržljivost parlamenta kot institucije presenetljiva. Parlamenti ostajajo v izobilju, vsaka demokracija jih ima, celo nedemokratični režimi si jih prizadevajo vzpostaviti in ohraniti (Norton). Vsi parlamenti niso enaki. Prihajajo v različnih oblikah in velikostih, nekatere so zelo majhne, ​​druge pa zelo velike. Na različne načine se prilegajo političnim sistemom. Nekateri so del parlamentarnih sistemov oblasti, pri čemer izvršno oblast črpa neposredno iz zakonodajne oblasti. Drugi so del predsedniških vladnih sistemov, izvršna oblast pa je izvoljena ločeno. Drugi so hibridi obeh. Nekateri so enosmerni, drugi dvodomni. Vsi imajo svoje notranje strukture ter pravila in postopke. Ta sprememba ustvarja vrsto notranjih in zunanjih spremenljivk, ki vplivajo na to, kako parlamenti obdelujejo zakonodajo (Norton, Shaw). Razumevanje teh spremenljivk pomaga razumeti priložnosti in omejitve parlamentarnega vpliva v zakonodajnem postopku ter napovedati, kako pomemben bo vpliv parlamenta.
  • Študija parlamentov in njihov vpliv – Napovedi parlamentarnega vpliva seveda niso isto kot dejanski parlamentarni vpliv (Arter, Russell). Kljub nekaterim izzivom pri pridobivanju in osmišljanju zanesljivih in ustreznih podatkov (Polsby, Arter) so bili številni in kvalitativni poskusi, da bi opredelili in količinsko opredelili parlamentarni vpliv v zakonodajnem postopku. Te študije so sčasoma postale vse bolj izpopolnjene. Griffithsova študija o usodi sprememb v sedemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja v parlamentu Združenega kraljestva slovi po svoji celovitosti in razlikuje med prepričljivim in prisilnim parlamentarnim učinkom. Nedavna doktorska raziskava Louise Thompson je posodobila delo Griffithsa in se osredotočila na vpliv zakonodajnih odborov v spodnjem domu. Analiza sprememb, ki jih je vložil Evropski parlament, je poskušala jasneje izmeriti obseg in pomen sprememb, pri čemer so prečiščene različice tega pristopa, ki sta jih Shephard in Cairney uporabila v prvih letih škotskega parlamenta ter Russell in sodelavci pri sprejemanju zakonov skozi Dom lordov. Kvalitativne študije so pri sprejemanju posameznih zakonov uporabile pristop študije primera, pri čemer so opredelile namere politike, ki stojijo za posebnimi spremembami (Hansard Society). Vse te študije kažejo, da je površno "štetje" zmag v amandmajih zavajajoče in potencialno znatno podcenjuje parlamentarni vpliv.#Številne "vladne" spremembe so dejansko navdihnjene s stališči ali dejanji parlamenta med zakonodajnim postopkom. Nekatere od teh študij tudi kažejo, da bo osredotočenost samo na spremembe podcenjevala parlamentarni učinek in da je treba upoštevati oblike nezakonodajnega vpliva. Kjer bi se vse te študije lahko še naprej razvijale, je jasnejša opredelitev, razlaga in kategorizacija vpliva politik na spremembe, ki jih sponzorira ali navdihuje parlament. Osredotočenost na natančno naravo vpliva sprememb v političnem kontekstu posameznih predlogov je ena od značilnosti tega doktorata znanosti. Namen izrecnega namera je, da se pogovor premakne iz splošnega opisa ali abstraktne količinske opredelitve "pomembnega" ali "nepomembnega" vpliva, da se jasneje opredeli, kaj ti opisi pomenijo z vidika politike.
    – Ob predpostavki, da je mogoče opredeliti in izmeriti parlamentarni vpliv v zakonodajnem postopku, je za razumevanje njegovega relativnega pomena koristno vedeti, kako se parlamenti med seboj primerjajo, in o tem obstaja dobro razvita literatura. Polsby, Mezey, Norton in Blondel so razvili vrsto konceptov in okvirov za opis in kategorizacijo sprememb, ki obstajajo v parlamentarnem vplivu v zakonodajnem postopku. Ti avtorji so na različne načine opisovali parlamente „arene“ in „preobrazbe“, parlamente „oblikovanja politike“, „politike, ki učinkuje“ ali „z majhnim učinkom ali brez nje“, ter parlamentov z visoko in nizko „zakonodajno viskoznostjo“. Te različne zakonodajne tipologije je mogoče združiti, da se ustvari enoten enotni spekter parlamentarnega vpliva v zakonodajnem postopku, kot je prikazano tukaj. Na eni strani bi postavili parlamente, ki imajo pomemben vpliv v zakonodajnem postopku, ustvarjajo lastne zakone ali bistveno spreminjajo vladne predloge. Na drugi bi postavili parlamente, ki imajo v zakonodajnem postopku majhen vpliv, morda razpravljali in upoštevali zakonodajo, ki je bila pred njimi, vendar je ne bi bistveno spremenili. Te tipologije imajo svoje omejitve (zlasti ker so zelo široke, pogosto združujejo parlamente, katerih učinek v zakonodajnem postopku lahko vsebuje opazne razlike). Vendar pa so v pomoč pri razlikovanju med jasnimi vrstami vpliva, ki jih imajo različni parlamenti v zakonodajnem postopku. Poleg tega bodo, kot bo pokazal doktorat znanosti, koristne tudi pri razlikovanju med vplivom, ki ga imajo posamezni parlamenti skozi čas, in na posamezne zakone, ki jih obravnavajo.
  • Škotski parlament – Škotski parlament bi lahko opisali kot relativno neraziskano (ali premalo raziskano) institucijo, vendar se je nekaj ključne literature razvijalo od leta 1999. Prva literatura se je osredotočala na ustanovitev parlamenta in pričakovanja, vlogo parlamenta v zakonodajnem postopku. Večina empirične analize vloge parlamenta v zakonodajnem postopku je bila izvedena v njegovih prvih letih, potem pa je relativna izguba zanimanja morda odražala dejstvo, da so študije pokazale, da je parlament bolj podoben kot njegov sestrski Westminsterski parlament. Od takrat se je večina literature o zakonodajnem postopku osredotočala na to, v kolikšni meri so zgodnja pričakovanja uresničila resničnost in ali so bila ta pričakovanja povsem nerealna. (Arter, Mitchell, Cairney itd.). Zato ostajajo v literaturi velike vrzeli o vplivu škotskega parlamenta na zakonodajni postopek. Na voljo ni nobene študije, ki bi sistematično uporabljala podatke vseh štirih zasedanj parlamenta od leta 1999, ki bi primerjala in primerjala vpliv parlamenta v zakonodajnem postopku v primerjalnem kontekstu koalicijske, manjšinske in večinske vlade. Zlasti to vrzel bo pripomogel k odpravi tega doktorata.

Izbrana bibliografija

Drugi ustrezni pregledi literature

Louise Thompson – neobjavljeni doktorat znanosti

Meg Russell – Ocena političnega vpliva Parlamenta: Metodološki izzivi in ​​možni prihodnji pristopi

Dojemanje "propada"#8221 parlamentov

Lord Bryce – Propad zakonodajnih organov (v zakonodajnih organih, uredil Philip Norton)

Bernard Crick – Reforma parlamenta

Richardson in Jordan – Vodita pod pritiskom: proces politike v postparlamentarni demokraciji

David Judge – Parlamentarna država

Robert Packenham – Zakonodajna telesa in politični razvoj

Samuel Beer – Britanski zakonodajalec in problem mobilizacije privolitve

Bagehot – Angleška ustava

Loewenberg – Vpliv parlamentarnega vedenja na stabilnost režima

Struktura parlamentov in zakonodajna funkcija

Philip Norton – Zakonodajna pooblastila parlamenta, v A. Flintermanu, A. W. Heringi in L. Waddingtonu, Razvijajoča se vloga parlamentov v Evropi, Antwerpen, MAKLU uigevers N. V., str.21-30

Anthony King – Načini izvršilno-zakonodajnih odnosov: Velika Britanija, Francija in Zahodna Nemčija

Odbori Shaw in Lees – v zakonodajnih organih: primerjalna analiza

Haare Strom – parlamentarni odbori v evropskih demokracijah

Loewenberg in S. C. Patterson, Primerjava zakonodajnih organov, Boston, Little, Brown & amp Company, 1979

Študija parlamentov in njihov vpliv

Blodel – Metodološke težave pri preučevanju zakonodajnih organov

David Arter – Uvod: Primerjava zakonodajne uspešnosti zakonodajnih organov

JAG Griffiths – Parlamentarni pregled vladnih zakonov

Susanna Kalitowski – Gumijast žig ali pilotska kabina? Vpliv parlamenta na vladno zakonodajo

Aimie Kreppel – Moving Beyond Procedure Empirična analiza zakonodajnega vpliva Evropskega parlamenta

Russell in Benton – (ponovna) ocena vpliva parlamentarne politike: primer avstralskega senata

Russell in Johns – Dvodomni parlamentarni nadzor vladnih zakonov: študija primera zakona o osebnih karticah

Russell in Sciara – Vpliv porazov na politični dom v politiki

Russell in Sciara – Zakaj vlada v Domu lordov porazi?: Lords, partijski sistem in britanska politika

Russell et al – Merljiva razlika: ocena vpliva Westminsterskega parlamenta na zakonodajo vlade, 2005–2010

Eric Kerrouche – The French Assemblée nationale: Primer šibkega zakonodajalca?

Paul Cairney – Analiza vpliva odbora škotskega parlamenta: preseganje zmogljivosti in strukture pri primerjavi zahodnoevropskih zakonodaj

Shephard in Cairney – Vpliv škotskega parlamenta na spremembo izvršilne zakonodaje

Občutek vpliva parlamentov

Nelson Polsby – Legislatures (v Legislatures, uredil Philip Norton) Michael Mezey – Classifying legislatures

Philip Norton – Zakonodaja v perspektivi (v parlamentih v zahodni Evropi, uredil Philip Norton)

Philip Norton – Parlament in politika v Veliki Britaniji: Spodnji dom kot vplivni politik

Jean Blondel – Zakonodajno vedenje: nekaj korakov v smeri mednacionalnega merjenja

David After – škotski odbori in cilj 'nove politike': razsodba o prvih štirih letih prenosa škotskega parlamenta

Paul Cairney – Analiza vpliva odbora škotskega parlamenta: Preseganje zmogljivosti in strukture pri primerjavi zapadnoevropskih zakonodaj

Shephard in Cairney – Vpliv škotskega parlamenta na spremembo izvršilne zakonodaje

James Mitchell – Novi parlament, nova politika?

David Arter – Škotski parlament – Skupščina v skandinavskem slogu?

James Mitchell – Narcizem majhnih razlik: Škotska in Westminster

Barry Winetrobe – Uresničevanje vizije – Parlament z namenom: revizija prvega leta škotskega parlamenta

Poročilo posvetovalne usmerjevalne skupine o škotskem parlamentu, Škotski urad, 1998

Odbor za postopke škotskega parlamenta, Poročilo o temeljnih načelih škotskega parlamenta, 3. poročilo, 2003, SP dokument 818

Poročilo Izvršnega odbora o škotski ustavni konvenciji, Ključni predlogi za škotski parlament, P SCCON 1995


Parlamentarna zakonodaja - zgodovina

1828 Razveljavitev preizkusnih in korporacijskih aktov. S tem so bile odpravljene politične ovire, ki so bile neaglikanskim protestantom naložene z zakonodajo, sprejeto leta 1673 oziroma 1661. Po razveljavitvi teh zakonov bi lahko disidentstvo sedelo v parlamentu in sodelovalo pri lokalni vladi. Zakon je spremenil anglikansko ustavo v protestantsko ustavo.

Zakon o katoliški emancipaciji iz leta 1829. Ta sporna zakonodaja je katoličanom omogočila, da so prvič po elizabetanskem aktu o poravnavi (1558/9) sedeli kot poslanci. Zakon je Wellingtonova vlada sprejela kljub velikemu nasprotovanju, ki je postalo krščansko, vendar nedenominacijsko.
Zakon o metropolitanski policiji. To je bil vrhunec dela Roberta Peela pri vzpostavitvi civilne, neoborožene policije. To je bil temelj policijske dejavnosti v Veliki Britaniji in je temeljil na njegovem delu na Irskem.

1831 (Hobhouse) Tovarniški zakon. To je bil tretji tovarniški zakon, njegov predhodnik je bil zakon o zdravju in navadi vajencev iz leta 1801 in zakon o tovarnah iz leta 1819. Hobhouseov zakon je prepovedal nočno delo za osebe, mlajše od 21 let.

Zakon o reformi iz leta 1832. Skoraj dve leti je trajalo, da je ta zakon dosegel Statut Books in Veliko Britanijo pripeljal na rob revolucije. Zakon o reformi je bil prva sistematična sprememba ustave, ki je franšizo razširila na tiste, ki niso lastniki zemljiškega premoženja, in je bila prva v nizu ustavnih sprememb.

Tovarniški zakon iz leta 1833. Ta zakon je bil sprejet s strani vlade Whig, da bi poskušali urediti delovni čas žensk in otrok. Puščalo je veliko želenega, vendar je bil korak k vladni ureditvi delovnih pogojev.
Zakon o odpravi suženjstva. To je bil vrhunec dolgotrajne kampanje, ki se je začela v 18. stoletju. Zakonodaja je bila dokončana z Jamajškim zakonom iz leta 1839.
prva štipendija za izobraževanje. Čeprav to ni zakonodajni akt, se je štipendija v višini 20.000 funtov za šole prvič vključila v izobraževanje na kakršen koli način. Prvi zakon o šolstvu je v knjigo statuta prišel šele leta 1870.

1834 Zakon o spremembah slabega zakona. Po zakonu o reformi iz leta 1832 je bil namen PLAA zmanjšati stopnje revnih, ni pa bil namenjen pomoči revnim, ki so zaradi zakonodaje trpeli. PLAA je nadomestil obstoječe slabe zakone in je bil odgovoren za ustanovitev delovnih hiš po vsej državi. Revne so obravnavali kot kriminalce in ljudje so stradali, namesto da bi zaprosili za slabo olajšavo, ker so to pomenili, da bodo postali zaporniki strašnih & quotpoor law bastilles & quot.

1835 Zakon o občinskih družbah je bila različica zakona o reformi iz leta 1832 za lokalno upravo. Obstoječe občinske družbe so postale bolj odgovorne volivcem in drugim mestom omogočile prijavo za ustanovitev.

Zakon o zakonskih zakonih iz leta 1836: po sprejetju tega zakona so se lahko ne-Anglikanci poročili bodisi v svoji cerkvi bodisi v pisarnah. Angleška cerkev je izgubila monopol nad zakonskimi storitvami
Zakon o prebivanju desetine: predvideval je plačilo desetine angleški cerkvi v gotovini, odvisno od cene pšenice.
znižanje carine. Odločitev vlade za znižanje carinske dajatve je bila predvsem posledica uspeha "vojne brez žiga", leta 1836 pa je bila dajatev znižana s 4d na 1d, da bi časopise brez žiga odstranili z ulic, hkrati pa omogočili širši naklada legalnih časopisov.

1837 Zakon o registraciji (o rojstvih, porokah in smrti). Although the 1833 Factory Act restricted working hours for young people, there was no means of telling the age of a person since no official records existed. Anglican churches had to record baptisms, marriages, and burials but there were few records for non-Anglicans. This legislation made it compulsory for all births, marriages and deaths to be registered at a Registry Office certificates were issued for each event and a second copy was retained at Somerset House in London. The administration of this Act was within the remit of the Poor Law Commission.

1838 Irish Poor Law Amendment Act . After a Commission reported that the 'importation' of the English 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act was inappropriate for Ireland, the government brought in its own "experts" and the 1834 PLAA was passed for Ireland. It was implemented just before the outbreak of the potato blight and proved to be inadequate to meet the crisis.

1839 The Jamaica Act finalised the 1833 Abolition of Slavery Act, setting the remaining slaves and apprentices free in the British colonies.
The Rural Constabularies Act extended the 1829 Metropolitan Police Act and required counties to establish their own police forces. The Act was passed in the face of Chartist activity.

1840 Penny Post . This was the idea of Sir Rowland Hill. Prior to this, recipients paid for any letters that were sent to them. Hereafter, the sender attached an adhesive, pre-paid label to any items that were posted. The most famous 'stamp' of this period is the Penny Black.

1842 Railway Act . This first piece of railway legislation was mainly a safety Act to ensure that railways ran safe services. New lines had to be inspected by the Board of Trade, which could demand traffic returns and inquire into accidents.
The Mines Act prohibited the employment of all females and boys under 10 years old from working underground in mines.

1844 The Railway Act ("Parliamentary Train Act") followed Gladstone's Committee of inquiry into railway policy. By this law, the government assumed the absolute right to take control of all railways in times of national emergency and to fix fares and freight charges. It also said that railway companies had to provide a minimum service of one train each day each way, travelling at not less than 12 miles per hour and stopping at every passenger station, charging no more than 1d. per mile for third class passengers.
Bank Charter Act . This Act tied the issue of bank notes to the Bank's gold reserves and required it to keep the accounts of the note issue separate from those of its banking operations. The Bank of England (image) had to produce a weekly summary of both accounts.
This Factory Act legislated only for textile factories and was the successor to the 1833 Factory Act. It said that women and young persons (13-18) were to work no more than 12 hours per day children under 13 were to work no more than 6½ hours per day and no child under 8 was to be employed.
The Companies Act aimed to prevent 'reckless speculation' and to prevent the establishment of dubious compaines by making it compulsory for all companies to be registered officially. The companies also had to issue prospectuses and publish accounts regularly.

1846 Repeal of the Corn Laws . The Corn Laws had been passed in 1815 and had raised the price of wheat artificially, leading to an economic depression. A concerted campaign for the repeal of the Corn Laws had been going on since 1838. Consequent upon the repeal, the career of Sir Robert Peel was terminated.
Gauges Act . This was another piece of railway legislation that prohibited the extension of the 7' gauge, except on the Great Western Railway and said that a third line of 4' 8½' had to be laid where 7' track met 4' 8½" line.

1847 Factory Act . Yet another piece of compromise legislation by the Whig government, this so-called '10-Hour Act' said that women and children between the ages of 13 and 18 could work a maximum of ten hours a day or 58 hours a week. The precise times of work were not set down and the 'relay' or shift system survived. Working hours for men were left untouched.
Poor Law Act . This Act followed on from the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act and replaced the Poor Law Commission with a Poor Law Board headed by a government Minister. Poor releif became more responsible to parliamentary control.

1848 Public Health Act . This was the first piece of legislation that attempted to deal with issues of public health. However, it was permissive rather than compulsory in towns other than Municipal Corporations. The Act established a central Board of Health and allowed Local Boards of Health to be set up if more than 10% of the population petitioned for one. No central inspection was required for authorities that had Boards of Health outside the legislation. Towns where the death rate exceeded 23 per 1,000 were obliged to set up a Board of Health.

1849 Repeal of the Navigation Acts . These laws had been introduced in the Seventeeth Century and said that goods being imported into Britain and her colonies had to be carried either in British ships or the ships of the country where the goods had origin. The laws had been modified during the 1820s but finally they were repealed.

1850 Factory Act . The law dealt only with textile factories. Women and young persons (13-18 years old) were to work in factories only between the hours of 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. or 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. but working hours were raised from 10 to 10½ per day.
Coal Mines Inspection Act . The 1842 Mines Act had not dealt with safety in the mines this legislation attempted to rectify that omission. More inspectors were provided to enforce the 1842 Act and were to produce reports of conditions and safety standards in the mines. The coal mine owners opposed all attempts to regulate conditions in the mines and many of these men sat in the House of Lords one of the most influential was the Marquis of Londonderrry who owned many of the coal mines in the north east of England, particularly around Durham.

1851 Ecclesiastical Titles Act . In 1850 Pope Pius IX restored the Catholic hierarchy in Britain, giving the Catholic Church a hierarchy like that of all Catholic countries. The Ecclesiastical Titles Act was an anti-Catholic measure intended to prevent the newly createdCatholic dioceses from taking existing Anglican diocesan names. Ironically, many of the Anglican dioceses had continued to use established Catholic names after the Reformation. The law was repealed by Gladstone in 1871.

1855 Abolition of stamp duties on newspapers. In June the final remaining penny of the British newspaper duty was removed and in September the Daily Telegraph appeared at the price of 1d. For the British working man, the newspaper became what reformers in the 1830s had predicted: 'the readiest, the commonest, the chief vehicle of knowledge'.

1856 County and Borough Police Act . The Metropolitan Police was established in 1829 in 1839 the Rural Constabularies Act was passed. This third piece of legislation obliged the counties to organise police forces, subject to government control and devised a system of inspection already in use in factories, workhouses and education. Grants to the police became dependent on the efficiency of the force: it was estimated that half of them were not efficient. The Act shifted the emphasis from the prevention of crime to its detection.

1857 Matrimonial Causes Act . By this Act, divorce courts were established. Women were given only limited access to divorce which could be obtained only on a specific cause other than adultery. Right of access to children after divorce was extended and women were able to repossess their property after a legal separation or after a protection order given consequent upon the husband's desertion.

1858 Abolition of the property qualification for MPs : this was one of the demands made by the Chartists. From this date, men did not have to own property in order to stand as candidates in parliamentary elections.
Jewish Disabilities Act implemented. In 1847, Baron Lionel de Rothschild was elected as an MP for London but objected to taking the oath which included the phrase "on the true faith of a Christian". He asked to be sworn in on the Old Testament. It took eleven attempts in the House of Lords to have the oath changed. Subsequently, Jews were able to take their seats in both Houses.
Medical Act

1859 Molestation of Workmen Act . This Act allowed peaceful picketing in the event of strike action taking place. The Act said that 'no person, by reason merely of his endeavouring peaceably and in a reasonable manner, and without threat or intimidation, direct or indirect, to persuade others to cease or abstain from work, in order to obtain the rate of wages or the altered hours of labour agreed to by him and others, should be deemed to have been guilty of "molestation" or "obstruction".'

1860 Food and Drugs Act . This was the first attempt at legislation to prevent the adulteration of food. It was common to find harmful additives in staple foods: white lead in flour, ground glass in sugar, red lead in coffee for example. The new law made the inclusion of additives a criminal offence. However, it was not very effective and had to be amended in The Mines Regulation and Inspection Act increased the number of mines inspectors and prohibited boys below the age of 12 from working underground.

1861 Repeal of paper duties . Gladstone helped the publishing industry by abolishing the excise duty on paper. This made producing newsapers cheaper still it revived rural paper works and encouraged the growth of London newspapers and the provincial press.

1866 Sanitary Act . Finally, it was recognised that the 1848 Act had failed to produce the desired results: this was due mainly to that Act being permissive rather than compulsory. The 1866 Act compelled local authorities to improve local conditions and remove nuisances (health hazards). They became responsible also for the provision of sewers, water and street cleaning. The Act enforced the connection of all houses to a new main sewer it set definite limits for the use of cellars as living rooms, and established the definition of 'overcrowding'. Every town was to appoint Sanitary Inspectors and the Home Secretary was empowered to take proceedings for the removal of nuisances where local authorities failed to act.

1867 the second Reform Act . This extended the franchise to most urban working men.
Master and Servant Act . This Act amended an existing piece of legislation strikers could now be prosecuted only for breach of contract. The Trade Unions were still dissatisfied, however, because it was possible for criminal proceedings to take place on the grounds of 'aggravated causes'.

1869 Disestablishment and Disendowment of the Irish Church . This Act came into effect on 1 January 1871. All ecclesiastical property belonging to the Church of Ireland, except churches in use, was vested in the Commissioners. Compensatoin was set at £16 million: half of the capital of the confiscated property and surplus funds were to be used for the relief of suffering. The Act also said that no Irish bishops were to sit in the House of Lords. Nonconformist ministers were to be given a grant from the Regium Donum (gift of the monarch) The Church of Ireland was to have a General Synod that was elected triennially by the dioceses.

1870 Irish Land Act . This law was passed by Gladstone's government and was intended to protect tenants against unfair eviction. Landlords were required to pay up to £250 to tenants who had been evicted unfairly and tenants were assisted in the purchase of their holdings by being able to borrow up to 2 /3 of the cost from the government.
Married Women's Property Act . This piece of legislation allowed women to keep £200 of their own earnings.
(Forster's) Education Act . This Act was intended only to 'plug the gaps' in the educational provision that existed. The two religious organisations that ran schools were given grants and the Act provided for the establishment of so-called 'Board Schools'. Education was neither free nor compulsory under this legislation.
Cardwell's army reforms begin. Cardwell was the Secretary of State for War his reforms continued for over ten years.

1871 University Test Act . Until the passing of this Act, all academics and students at Oxford and Cambridge Universities had to be practising members of the Anglican Church. By this legislation, the privileges of the Anglican Church were removed and the universities were open to all with suitable abilities regardless of religious faith.
Civil Service reforms . Posts in the Civil Service were dependent upon privilege and connection with the 'right' people until this legislation. Thereafter, positions were open to all who could pass the examinations. The Foreign Office was excluded from the legislation, however, and continued to be the domain of privilege and connection.
Trade Union Act recognised unions as legal bodies with the right to own property and funds. Unions were allowed to protect these at law and they were also allowed to conduct strikes.
Criminal Law Amendment Act . This took away the power of strike action: although TUs could conduct strikes under the Trade Union Act, this second piece of legislation forbade the use of picketing of any description) even peaceful picketing). Consequently, it would be almost impossible for a strike to be conducted.
Abolition of the purchase of Commissions . This was one of Cardwell's Army Reforms by which officers in the British Army were to be appointed by merit and ability rather than being able to buy rank. The legislation met great opposition.

  • gave magistrates the power to issue licenses to public houses where it was thought that there were too many of these, magistrates were able to close down some of them
  • public houses now had to close in towns at midnight and at 11 p.m. in the countryside - so that agricultural labourers could walk home and arrive before midnight
  • the adulteration of beer was made illegal: it was common for salt to be added to it, to make the consumers thirsty and so drink more.

1872 Ballot Act : this was one of the things that the Chartists had demanded. The Act introduced the secret ballot to all elections, making them less corrupt and less subject to bribery and corruption. The legislation was opposed by landlords and employers who could no longer control the votes of their tenants and workers.
Coal Mines Regulating Act . This insisted on the introduciton of safety methods such as fan ventilators, stronger timber supports, wire ropes, imporved winding gear and better safety lamps.
Public Health Act . This divided England and Wales into Health Authority districts, each of which had to have its own Medical Officer of Health and accompanying staff. The duties of the Health Authorities were not specified and most Health Boards were unwilling to spend the required money on radical reforms.

1873 Judicature Act . This Act rationalised the legal system in Britain by united seven different courts into one High Court of Justice.

1874 Licensing Act . This was an amendment to Gladstone's Act and provided for longer opening hours.
The Factory Act reduced working hours to 10 per day it also said that no child couild be employed until the age of 10 and no young person could work full time until the age of 14.

  • ensure that there was an adequate water supply, drainage and sewage disposal
  • nuisances were to be removed
  • offensive trades were to be regulated
  • contaminated food was to be found, confiscated and destroyed
  • cases of infectious diseases were to be reported to the local Medical Officer of Health who then had to take appropriate action
  • further regulations dealt with matters concerning: markets street lighting burials

1876 (Sandon's) Education Act . School Attendance Committees were established to encourage as many children as possible to take advantage of educational opportunities and parents were made responsible for ensuring that their children received basic instruction. The Committees could help to pay the school fees if parents were too poor to do so themselves - but this was not compulsory.
Merchant Shipping Act : this was the work of Samuel Plimsoll and was aimed at preventing ship owners sending unseaworthy or overloaded ships to sea, at the expense of the sailors' lives. The Act required a series of 'lines' to be painted on the ship to show the maximum loading point. It was not until 1890 that Board of Trade officials applied the regulations that Plimsoll had intended.

1878 Factory and Workshops Act . All workshops and factories employing more than 50 people were now to be inspected regularly by government inspectors rather than by local authorities (as previously).

1880 Employers' Liability Act aplied to all manual workers except seamen and domestic servants it gave to injured employees or their dependents the same rights to recover damages from their employers that non-employees always enjoyed

1881 Irish Land Act . This was another piece of legislation passed by Gladstone and it gave to Ireland what Irish tenants had been requesting for many years: the so-called "3 Fs" - fair rents, fixity of tenure and free sale of the tenancy. The Act also provided for the establishment of Land Courts which would decide on what was a 'fair rent'. Unfortunately, the Land League did everything it could to prevent the Act from working and the evictions and violence in Ireland continued.
(Mundella's) Education Act . This made attendance at elementary school compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 10. Parents had to pay 'school pence' - about 3d. per child per week. Often, poor parents could not afford this sum of money.

1882 The Married Women's Property Act allowed all married women to continue as the separate owners and administrators of their property after marriage.

1884 Third Reform Act . This extended the franchise to most adult males.

1885 Redistribution Act . This Act went hand in hand with the Reform Act: all boroughs with fewer than 15,000 inhabitants lost their MP those with fewer than 50,000 MPs lost one MP. There were now 142 seats available for redistribution and these were given to densely populated areas. Constituencies were reorganised so that there were 647 single member constituencies of the 670 in existence.

1888 County Councils Act . This legislation established County Councils. The old local government boards (about 27,000 of them) were replaced by 67 elected County Councils which had extensive and compulsory powers to deal with matters such as road maintenance, the building of bridges, the establishment of a police force and the administrative duties that had previously been within the remit of JPs. Some sixty towns with populations over 60,000 became County Boroughs with the same powers as County Councils. Under this legislation, unmarried women were allowed to vote for councillors although they were not allowed to become councillors themselves.

1891 The Fee Grant Act effectively made elementary education free of charge

1894 Local Government Act (often referred to as the Parish Councils Act) . This Act divided the counties into Urban District Councils and Rural District Councils, each with its own elected coucil. Rural District Councils were divided into civil Parish Councils which had to be elected if the population exceeded 300. Generally, the civil parishes had the same boundaries as the ecclesiastical (Church of England) parishes. Women were now allowed to stand as candidates and sit as councillors on these councils.

1897 Workmen's Compensation Act . This law said that an employer should compensate a workman who was injured, and the dependants of a workman who was killed at work, irrespective of any negligence on the part of the employer or his other employees. The Act was restricted to a limited number of employments, the so-called "dangerous trades" that included the building trade.


Towards a modern parliament

The Whigs believed the British Parliament should have more power than the monarch. During the 19th century, Whigs were in favour of change and reform, and became the Liberal Party. Today, they have evolved into the Liberal Democrats.

The Tories were more conservative and opposed to change. They supported the power of the monarch and the Church of England, and were unwilling to give the British Parliament more power. Today, they have evolved into the Conservative Party.


Parliamentary Legislation - History

Ghana achieved Independence on 6th March, 1957. The political struggles that preceded this historic event date back over a hundred years.

The early period of nationalist struggle for political independence created political awareness and desire to assert the right of self-determination both for the individual and the State.

As far back as 1850, Ghana, then The Gold Coast, was given its own Legislative Council to advise the colonial Governor in enacting legislation mainly in the form of Ordinances "for the peace, order and good government of the subject." The Legislative Council was purely advisory as the Governor exercised all legislative and executive powers.

In 1916 the Legislative Council was reconstituted to include nine nominated officials, six of whom were Africans, as opposed to eleven officials and the Governor. The first Legislative Council elections ever to be held took place in 1925 under the Guggisberg Constitution. Under this arrangement the Governor still retained complete control of legislation.

Under the 1946 Bums Constitution which replaced the Guggisberg Constitution, the representatives of the people formed the majority in the Legislative Council. The Governor ceased to be ex-officio President of the Legislative Council and an unofficial Member was appointed President. This system continued until 1951 when the Legislature elected its first Speaker under the 1950 Constitution.

In 1951 the first large-scale elections to the Legislative Assembly took place when 75 Members were elected. There were three nominated ex-officio Members and six special Members representing commercial and mining interests.

The 1954 transitional Constitution provided for an Assembly of a Speaker and 104 Members elected on party lines on the basis of universal adult suffrage.

In 1957, when Ghana achieved full political Independence the constitution was fashioned after the Westminster model. In June, 1960, ten women were elected by the National Assembly to fill specially created seats. This was done to expose women to parliamentary life. This system of election was not intended to be permanent. The Act made no provision for filling a vacancy caused by death, resignation or expulsion of a woman Member.

On 1st July, 1960 Ghana became a sovereign unitary Republic. In February, 1964 Ghana adopted a one-party system of Government. The First National Assembly of the Republic was , dissolved in 1965 and a general election in which all the 198 Members, all of them Members of the national party, the convention People''s Party (C.P.P.) were elected unopposed.The 1964 Constitutional Amendments among other things increased the powers and prerogatives of the President.

In February, 1966 the First Republican Government was overthrown by a military coup which installed a military government that remained in power up to September, 1969, when, on its own volition, it handed over power to another constitutionally elected government, and thereby restored parliamentary rule once again.

After only 22 months in office the second parliamentary democracy also succumbed to another military rule between January 1972 and October 1979, when under much political pressure, that military government was compelled to usher in the Third Republican parliamentary system. In December 1981 parliamentary democracy was once more thrown into cold storage as a result of yet another military coup. However, the country returned to constitutional rule again on 7th January, 1993.


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