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Sten Guns Mk.1, Mk.3 in Mk.5

Sten Guns Mk.1, Mk.3 in Mk.5

Sten Guns Mk.1, Mk.3 in Mk.5

Avtorske slike iz zbirke pehotnega orožja v Warminsterju, ki prikazujejo prvo Mk. 1 Sten Gun (zgoraj), Mk.2 (na sredini) in Mk. 5 (spodaj).


Lee-Enfield št. 5 Mk 1 džungla karabin

A Lee Enfield Mk 1 št. 5 Jungle Carbine. Od starinskih vojaških pušk preko Flickrja

Vrnimo se zdaj k vznemirljivim preteklim dnevom (v tem primeru konec petdesetih let). Nekaj ​​kilometrov od mesta, kjer sem živel v New Jerseyju, je bila diskontna hiša-danes bi ji rekli, da bi to imenovali prodajalna za zaposlitev-, ki se je prekleto skoraj vse prodajala po nizkih in nizkih cenah. Ena od stvari, ki so jih prodali, so bile pištole. Pravi. Z bratom, ki sta bila oboje zelo všeč orožje, sva si nekoč kupila skorajda kovinski argentinski Mauser (in veliko poceni vojaškega streliva), pištolo DEWAT Sten*in Lee-Enfield št. 5 Mk 1 Jungle Carbine.

Nobeden od nas ni bil dovolj star, da bi imel vozniško dovoljenje, vse pa je bilo povsem zakonito ali je minilo vsaj šest desetletij in nobeden od nas ni bil aretiran. Odšli bi na lokalno strelišče in si odnesli sluh, ker nihče ni nosil slušalk in se imeli lepo. Nimam pojma, kaj se je zgodilo s temi puškami. Mislim, da se spomnim, da smo se morali znebiti pištole Sten, ker so bili sosedje prestrašeni in se pritoževali.

Verjamem, da smo za vsako od teh pušk plačali približno 15 dolarjev, kar je 130 dolarjev v dolarjih za leto 2017, zato sem z občutkom šoka in strahospoštovanja zagledal karabin iz džungle v knjižnici orožja Cabela za 750 dolarjev. Bilo je nekje na sejmu NRA/Good, in to ni visoka cena, ki jih vidim na internetu za 900 USD.

To je zanimiva puška. Izraz Jungle Carbine je bil strogo neuraden, številka 5 Mk 1 je bila leta 1943 zasnovana za britanske letalske čete v Evropi, ki so bile obremenjene z dolgo, težko Lee-Enfield št. 4 Mk 1 in grozljivo pištolo Sten **. Namesto da bi oblikovali popolnoma novo puško (v vsakem primeru je ne bi mogli izdelati), so britanski oklepniki pri številki 4. razrezali cev na 18,8 centimetrov in odsekali del sprednje strani. -končajte, izvrtite gumb vijaka in ozemljite kovino iz akcije.

Nova puška je bila precej krajša in 2 kilograma lažja od izvirnika. Vendar so bile, kot pravijo, težave, ali kot je rekel pokojni igralec Victor Spinetti: "Seveda ne gre, to je britansko." Skrajšani sod je ustvaril močan blisk. To je bilo večinoma rešeno z dodatkom stožčastega skrivalca. Zaradi lažje teže in spremembe ravnotežja je številka 5 brcala kot mula. Da bi preprečili odvečno trpljenje, so Britanci na zadnjico dodali majhno, trdo trdno blazino. Ni veliko pomagalo. Kolikor se spomnim, je bil karabin, ki sva ga kupila z bratom, zelo neprijeten za streljanje.

Potem je nastal problem »tavajoče ničle«. Trdili so, da številka 5 ne more držati svoje ničle. Glede tega je nekaj spora. Ena stran trdi, da je dejanje naletelo zaradi olajšanja rezov v sprejemniku. Druga stran trdi, da s puško ni nič narobe, da jo je Velika Britanija želela izključiti iz inventarja, ker so se vsi drugi odpravili na polavtomobile.

Skratka, 251.368 št. 5 je bilo zgrajenih med letoma 1944 in 1947. Po pravici povedano je imel Mk 5 nekaj čudovitih lastnosti. Tako kot vsa Enfields je bila neuničljiva, zelo hitra za delovanje z vijaki, močna za svojo velikost in hitra za ponovno polnjenje. Služil je v drugi svetovni vojni, Koreji in izrednih razmerah v Maleziji.

Oboževalca je imel pokojni George MacDonald Fraser, ki je napisal čudovite romane Flashman. Fraser je bil podčastnik (kasneje častnik) v britanski vojski in je v drugi svetovni vojni služil v birmanski kampanji. V boju je uporabil karabin iz džungle in rekel, da je to odlična puška in da, če ciljate, kot bi morali, ne potrebujete polavtomatskega ali avtomatskega orožja. Bom mu verjel na besedo.

*DEWAT pomeni Deactivated War Trophy in fraze ne slišite več veliko. V poznih štiridesetih in petdesetih letih so DEWATS uvozili po toni in uporabili za bog ve kaj, saj so bili sodi zamašeni s spajkanjem v bližini zadnjice. Odstraniti ga je bilo dokaj enostavno. Moj prijatelj je bil izgnan z Yaleja, pravi, da je v strojnici Yale ponovno aktiviral pištolo DEWAT Sten. Preprosto so ga povabili, naj se izobražuje drugje. Ne predstavljam si, če bi kdo to danes naredil.

** Stenovo pištolo so poimenovali "vodovodar"#8221 veselje ”, ker jo je lahko dobesedno sestavil vodovodar. Bilo je netočno, razen na zelo kratkem dosegu. Prav tako je bilo nezanesljivo. Leta 1942 so Britanci poslali par čeških morilcev, da bi ubili generala SS Reinharda Heydricha. Načrtovali so, da ga bodo spojili s Stenom, saj je njegov avto zavijal, vendar se je pištola zagozdila in ni hotela streljati. Eden od njih je vrgel granato, ki je odpeljala konjske dlake z oblazinjenja avtomobila na stran Heydricha. To je povzročilo okužbo, ki je teden dni kasneje ubila Heydricha. Njegove zadnje besede naj bi bile Natürlich hat es nicht funktioniert, es ist britisch. (Seveda ni delovalo, bilo je britansko.)


Leta 1944 je britanski generalštab izdal specifikacijo za novo avtomatsko pištolo, ki bo nadomestila Sten. Navajalo je, da novo orožje ne sme tehtati več kot 2,7 kg, naj strelja s strelivom 9 × 19 mm Parabellum, imeti hitrost streljanja največ 500 nabojev na minuto in biti dovolj natančno, da omogoča pet zaporednih strelov (izstreljen) v polavtomatskem načinu), nameščen znotraj kvadratne (30 cm × 30 cm) tarče na razdalji 100 m (91 m).

Da bi izpolnil novo zahtevo, je George William Patchett, glavni oblikovalec pri podjetju Sterling Armaments Company iz Dagenhama, v začetku leta 1944. predložil vzorčno orožje nove zasnove. [19] Prva prototipna pištola Patchett je bila podobna Stenu, kolikor je bil njegov ročaj (in režo, v kateri se je premikal naprej in nazaj) je bila postavljena v skladu z odprtino za izmet [20], čeprav je bila kmalu zatem preoblikovana in premaknjena navzgor v nekoliko odmaknjen položaj. [21] Vojska je hitro prepoznala Patchettovo znatno povečano natančnost in zanesljivost v primerjavi s Stenom in naročila 120 primerov za preskuse. Proti koncu druge svetovne vojne so nekatere od teh poskusnih vzorcev v bitki pri Arnhemu [22] in v posebnih lokacijah v severni Evropi [23], kjer so bili uradno znani kot Strojni karabin Patchett Mk 1. [24] Na primer, avtomat Patchett (serijsko številko 078, ki ga zdaj hrani Imperial War Museum) je v akciji nosil polkovnik Robert W.P. Dawson [25], medtem ko je bil poveljnik častnika št. 4 Commando, med napadom na Walcheren v okviru operacije Infatuate novembra 1944. [26] Ker lahko Patchett/Sterling uporablja ravne revije Sten, pa tudi ukrivljeno obliko Sterlinga, ni bilo težav z interoperabilnostjo.

Po vojni z velikim številom Stenovih pušk v inventarju ni bilo zanimanja za njihovo zamenjavo z vrhunsko zasnovo. Vendar pa je leta 1947 potekalo tekmovalno preskušanje med Patchettom, Enfieldovim dizajnom, novo zasnovo BSA in eksperimentalno avstralsko zasnovo, za primerjavo pa Sten. Preskušanje ni bilo prepričljivo, vendar so mu sledili nadaljnji razvoj in več poskusov. Sčasoma je zmagal Patchettov dizajn in leta 1951 je bila sprejeta odločitev, da ga sprejme britanska vojska. [27] Sten je začel nadomeščati leta 1953 kot "Sub-Machine Gun L2A1". Njegova zadnja različica, ki ni bila potlačena, je bila L2A3, vendar so bile spremembe modela v času njegovega razvoja minimalne.

Pri izdelavi pištole so uporabili avtomatske puške sterlinga z manjšimi kozmetičnimi spremembami Vojna zvezd filmi kot rekviziti za puško Stormtrooper. [28]

Avtomatska pištola Sterling je v celoti izdelana iz jekla in plastike ter ima zalogo ramen, ki se zloži pod orožjem. Na voljo je nastavljiv zadnji pogled, ki ga lahko premikate med 100 in 200 jardskimi nastavitvami. Čeprav običajno odpiranje s strelo poteka z odprtim vijakom, obstaja nekaj nenavadnih značilnosti: na primer, na vijaku so vijačni utori, izrezani v površino, da se odstrani umazanija in umazanija z notranje strani sprejemnika, da se poveča zanesljivost. Obstajata dve koncentrični povratni vzmeti, ki obračata vijak, v nasprotju z enojno vzmetjo, ki jo uporabljajo številne druge izvedbe SMG. Ta naprava z dvojno vzmetjo znatno zmanjša "odboj vijaka", ko se kartuše napolnijo, kar ima za posledico boljše zapiranje, bolj gladek odmik in večjo natančnost. Poleg tega Sterling uporablja znatno izboljšano (nad Sten) 34-okroglo ukrivljeno dvojno stebričnico za podajanje, ki je vstavljena v levo stran sprejemnika. Sledilnik revije, ki potisne kartuše v podajalno odprtino, je opremljen z valji za zmanjšanje trenja. Vijak napaja strelivo izmenično z vrha in dna ustnic naboja, njegov fiksni strelni zatič pa je zasnovan tako, da se ne poravna s temeljnim premazom v kartuši, dokler kartuša ne vstopi v komoro. [29]

Sterling uporablja določeno stopnjo tako imenovanega naprednega vžiga temeljnega premaza, saj se vložek sproži, medtem ko se vijak še premika naprej, delček sekunde, preden je krog popolnoma zaprt. Streljanje krogle tako ne pošlje le krogle, ki leti navzdol po cevi, ampak se hkrati upira premiku vijaka naprej. Na ta način je mogoče uporabiti lažji vijak, kot če bi se vložek sprožil po tem, ko se je vijak že ustavil, kot pri preprostem povratnem udarcu, saj bi morala energija ekspandirajočih plinov preseči statično vztrajnost vijaka (plus odpornost vzmeti) ), da ga znova potisnete nazaj in kolesarite z orožjem, medtem ko se v tej ureditvi nekaj te energije porabi tudi pri preprečevanju gibanja vijaka, zato ni nujno, da je vijak tako velik. Lažji vijak ni namenjen le lažji pištoli, ampak tudi bolj nadzorovani, saj se med streljanjem v njej premika manj mase. [30]

Zatirana različica Sterlinga (L34A1/Mk.5) je bila razvita za tajne operacije. Ta različica uporablja prenosni sod, obdan z valjem z ekspanzijskimi komorami. Avstralski in novozelandski polk SAS sta med vietnamsko vojno uporabila potlačeno različico Sterlinga. [31] Znamenito je, da so jih med falklandsko vojno uporabljale tako argentinske kot britanske posebne sile. [32] Libijski agenti so sterling uporabili za umor WPC Yvonne Fletcher pred libijskim veleposlaništvom v Londonu, kar je sprožilo obleganje stavbe leta 1984.

Sterling slovi po odlični zanesljivosti v neugodnih razmerah in, čeprav strelja z odprtega vijaka, dobro natančnost. Z nekaj vaje je zelo natančen pri kratkih strelih. Čeprav so poročali, da orožje ne predstavlja težav pri delovanju levičarjev, [33] ga ne priporočamo brez nošenja balistične zaščite za oči. Pot izvrženih kartuš je rahlo navzdol in nazaj, zato lahko levičarji občasno povzročijo blage opekline.

Bajonet podobne zasnove kot pri samonosni puški L1A1 je bil izdelan in izdan v službi britanske vojske, vendar je bil le redko uporabljen, razen za obredne naloge. Oba bajoneta sta izpeljana iz različice, izdane s puško št. 5 Mk I "Jungle Carbine", glavna razlika pa je manjši obroč na bajonetu SLR, ki se prilega gobcu puške. Ko je bil nameščen, je bil bajonet Sterling zamaknjen levo od navpične črte orožja, kar je dalo bolj naravno ravnovesje pri uporabi za boj proti bajonetom.

Za strelca z desnico je pravilen položaj leve roke med streljanjem na prezračenem ohišju cevi, ne pa tudi na naboju, saj lahko pritisk držanja revije poveča tveganje za prekinitve in ohlapna revija lahko vodi da odvrže orožje. Držalo za cev zagotavlja večji nadzor nad orožjem, zato se lahko desna roka občasno uporablja za druge naloge. Polkrožna izboklina na desni strani orožja, približno dva centimetra od gobca, preprečuje premik podporne roke predaleč in čez gobec.

Sterlingovo revijo je leta 1946 oblikoval George Patchett. Čeprav je bil Sterling prvotno namenjen revijam Sten, pa so zaradi pomanjkanja zanesljivosti izdelali novo revijo s številnimi spremembami, vključno z uporabo valjev za zmanjšanje trenja, žigosano kovinsko konstrukcijo in revijo ukrivili. omogočala bolj zanesljivo podajanje kroga 9 × 19 mm. Revija Sterling naj bi bila ena najbolje oblikovanih doslej. [34]

Med letoma 1953 in 1988. jih je bilo skupaj izdelanih več kot 400.000. Sterling jih je izdelal v njihovi tovarni v Dagenhamu za britanske oborožene sile in za prodajo v tujini, medtem ko so jih tovarne Royal Ordnance Fa Fakerkerley blizu Liverpoola zgradile izključno za britansko vojsko. Proizvodnja je prenehala leta 1988 z zaprtjem Sterling Armaments [35] s strani britanske letalske vesoljske družbe/Royal Ordnance. ROF ne izdeluje več polnega orožja, vendar še vedno proizvaja rezervne dele za certificirane končne uporabnike. [ potreben citat ]

Čilska varianta je bila izdelana s strani FAMAE kot avtomatska pištola PAF, vendar je bila navzven drugačna, saj je imela krajši sprejemnik brez ohišja cevi. [36]

Kanada je izdelala tudi različico po licenci, imenovano pištola za avtomate 9 mm C1, ki jo je izdelal Canadian Arsenals Limited. [37] Narejen je iz vtisnjene kovine namesto lite kovine in je zmožen rokovanja z bajonetom C1, ki se uporablja samo med javnimi razstavnimi dogodki in ne za bojne operacije. [38]

Podobno orožje, karabin za strojnico 9 mm 1A1, izdeluje po licenci indijska tovarna orožja v Kanpurju leta 1963, [39] skupaj s karabinom za strojnice za pištole 9 mm 2A1, izdelano leta 1977. [39] Leta 2012 so poročali, da je bilo v Indiji izdelanih 5.000 SMG. [40]

  • Britanske oborožene sile
    • Nerazporejeno: Patchett Machine Carbine Mark 1 (poskusi so se začeli leta 1944)
    • Nedodeljeno: Patchett Machine Carbine Mark 1 & amp zložljiv bajonet (enako kot zgoraj, vendar z zložljivim bajonetom, nikoli sprejet)
    • L2A1: (Patchett Machine Carbine Mark 2) Sprejet leta 1953.
    • L2A2: (Sterling Mark 3) Sprejeto leta 1955.
    • L2A3: (Sterling Mark 4) Sprejet leta 1956. Zadnja redna različica v službi britanske vojske, kraljevih marincev in polka RAF.
    • L34A1: Zatirana različica (Sterling-Patchett Mark 5).
    • Avtomat C1: sprejet leta 1958 in nadomešča pištolo STEN v splošni službi. [38] Od britanskega L2 se je razlikoval po tem, da je široko uporabljal žigosane kovinske dele, namesto dražjih ulitkov, ki so jih uporabljali britanski proizvajalci SMG. [38] Prav tako je imel standardno možnost odstranljivega sprožilca za uporabo z rokavicami pri arktičnih operacijah, uporabljal pa je tudi drugo 30-krožno revijo z vtisnjenim kovinskim sledilcem. Na voljo je bila tudi 10-krožna revija za posadke oklepnih vozil.
    • SAF karabin 1A: indijski Sterling L2A1.
    • SAF karabin 2A1: tihi karabin Sterling Mark V.

    7.62 Natova varianta Uredi

    Prototip puške v kalibru NATO 7,62 × 51 mm je bil izdelan z uporabo nekaterih sestavnih delov SMG. Puška je za rokovanje z močnejšimi naboji uporabila povratni udarec z zakasnitvijo vzvoda in se napajala iz 30-krogovnih revij Bren. [42] Da bi preprečili izgubo streliva, je orožje streljalo iz odprtega vijaka. Izdelan je bil le en model puške, po možnosti za preizkušanje konceptov predlaganega novega izdelka. Ni bilo dano v proizvodnjo.


    Vsebina

    Ob koncu prve svetovne vojne leta 1918 je bila britanska vojska opremljena z dvema glavnima avtomatskima orožjema, srednjim mitraljezom Vickers (MMG) in lahkim mitraljezom Lewis. Vickers je bil težak in je potreboval zalogo vode, da je deloval, kar ga je nagibalo k statični obrambi in posredni ognjeni podpori. Lewis, čeprav lažji, je bil še vedno težak in je bil nagnjen k pogostim prekinitvam njegovega cevja na terenu, kar je pomenilo, da je trajno streljanje povzročilo pregrevanje, dokler se popolnoma ni ustavilo. Leta 1922 je Odbor za malo orožje britanske vojske, da bi našel zamenjavo za Lewisa, izvedel tekmovalne preizkušnje med mitraljezom Madsen, avtomatsko puško M1918 Browning (BAR), mitraljezom Hotchkiss M1909, puško Beardmore-Farquhar in Lewisa samega. Čeprav je bil BAR priporočljiv, je ogromno razpoložljivih Lewisovih pištol in težki finančni pogoji pomenili, da ni bilo storjeno nič. Ko so bili na voljo, so bili preizkušeni različni novi modeli lahkih mitraljezov, leta 1930 pa so se začeli nadaljnji obsežni poskusi, ki jih je nadzoroval Frederick Hubert Vinden. [7] Tokrat je bilo testirano orožje SIG Neuhausen KE7, Vickers-Berthier in češkoslovaški ZB vz.26. Vickers-Berthier je kasneje prevzela indijska vojska, ker ga je bilo mogoče izdelati naenkrat, namesto da bi čakal, da se britanski proizvodni proces Lewisa konča, je bil tudi v drugi svetovni vojni obsežen servis. [8]

    Po teh preizkusih je britanska vojska sprejela češkoslovaški lahki mitraljez ZB vz.26, proizveden v Brnu leta 1935, čeprav nekoliko spremenjen model, ZB vz. 27, ne pa ZB vz. 26, predloženih za sojenja. Zasnova je bila spremenjena v skladu z britanskimi zahtevami pod novo oznako ZGB 33, ki je bila nato licencirana za britansko proizvodnjo pod imenom Bren. Največje spremembe so bile v reviji in cevi ter v spodnjem sklopu pištolskega ročaja, ki je šel od vrtljivega okvirja ročaja, ki se je zasukal na sprednji strani ščitnika sprožilca, do drsnega okvirja, ki je vključeval nosilec za stojalo naprej in pokrov drsnega odtoka. Revija je bila ukrivljena, da bi napajala obrobljeno kartušo .303 palca SAA ("Strelivo za majhno orožje"), kar je sprememba v primerjavi z različnimi naboji Mauserja brez okvirja, kot je na primer 8-milimetrski krog Mauser, ki so ga prej uporabljali češki modeli. Te spremembe so bile razvrščene v različne oštevilčene oznake, ZB vz. 27, ZB vz. 30, ZB vz. 32 in končno ZGB 33, ki je bil licenciran za proizvodnjo pod imenom Bren. [ potreben citat ]

    Bren je bilo orožje na plin, ki je uporabljalo isto strelivo 0,303 kot standardna britanska puška z vijaki Lee – Enfield, ki je streljala s hitrostjo med 480 in 540 naboji na minuto (vrt / min), odvisno od modela . Pogonski plini, ki se odpirajo iz odprtine proti koncu gobca cevi skozi regulator (viden tik pred dvonožno) s štirimi hitro nastavljivimi odprtinami različnih velikosti, namenjene prilagajanju prostornine plina različnim temperaturam okolja (najmanjši pretok pri visokih temperaturah) poletna puščava, največja pri nizkih temperaturah, npr. zimska Arktika). Odzračeni plin je poganjal bat, ki je sprožil blok zapornice. Vsaka pištola je bila opremljena z rezervno cevjo, ki jo je bilo mogoče hitro zamenjati, ko se je cev med dolgotrajnim ognjem segrela, čeprav so pozneje puške vsebovale kromirano cev, kar je zmanjšalo potrebo po rezervni cevi. Za menjavo sodov je bil sprostitveni zapah pred nabojem zasukan, da se odklene cev. Ročaj za nošenje nad sodom je bil uporabljen za prijemanje in odstranjevanje vročega sodčka, ne da bi opekel roke. [ potreben citat ]

    Bren se je napajal z revijo, kar je upočasnilo hitrost streljanja in zahtevalo pogostejše polnjenje kot britanske mitraljeze s pasom, kot je večja mitraljeza .303 Vickers. Počasnejša hitrost ognja je preprečila hitrejše pregrevanje zračno hlajenega cevi Brena, Bren pa je bil veliko lažji od mitraljezov s pasom, ki so imeli običajno hladilne jopiče, pogosto napolnjene s tekočino. Revije so tudi preprečile, da bi se strelivo umazalo, kar je bil večji problem pri Vickersu s 250-okroglimi platnenimi pasovi. Znamenitosti so bile pomaknjene v levo, da bi se izognili reviji na vrhu orožja. Položaj znamenitosti je pomenil, da je Bren mogoče streljati le z desne rame. [9]

    Druga svetovna vojna Edit

    V britanski vojski in vojski Commonwealtha je bil Bren na splošno izdan v lestvici ena na odsek puške. [10] Pehotni bataljon je imel tudi vod "nosilca", opremljen z univerzalnimi nosilci, od katerih je vsak nosil pištolo Bren. [11] Padalski bataljoni iz leta 1944 so imeli v protitankovskem vodu dodaten Bren. [12] 66-članska "jurišna četa" britanskih komandos je imela nominalno ustanovitev štirih topov Bren. Ker se je zavedala potrebe po dodatni ognjeni moči na oddelku, si je britanska vojska prizadevala izdati Bren v velikem številu, pri čemer je bil določen cilj enega Brena na vsake štiri zasebne vojake. [13] Z Brenom je upravljala dvočlanska posadka, ki ji je včasih poveljeval kapitan Lance kot "strelna skupina" pehote, preostanek odseka pa je predstavljal "puško skupino". Strelec ali "številka 1" je nosil in izstreljeval Bren, nakladalnik ali "številka 2" pa je nosil dodatne revije, rezervno cev in komplet orodja. [14] Številka 2 je pomagala ponovno naložiti pištolo in zamenjati cev, ko se je pregrela, ter opazila cilje za številko 1. [ potreben citat ]

    Na splošno je bil Bren streljan iz ležečega položaja s pomočjo pritrjenih dvonožcev. [15] Obstreljevalec Bren je ob uporabi premika, ki ga podpira zanka, podobno kot avtomatska puška, uporabljal svoje orožje iz stoječega ali klečečega položaja. Avstralski vojaki so z zanko redno streljali Brena iz kolka, na primer v taktirki pohodnega ognja, obliki zatiralnega ognja, ki se je premikal naprej v napadu. Za tovrstno uporabo je bil leta 1942 v Isuravi na Novi Gvineji med bojnim umikom Avstralcev iz Kokode nagrajen križ Victoria. [16]

    Oprema vsakega britanskega vojaka je običajno vključevala dve reviji za pištolo Bren njegovega oddelka. Velike vrečke za strelivo na spletni opremi Pattern Web iz leta 1937 so bile oblikovane okoli revije Bren. Bren je veljal za glavno orožje pehotnega odseka, ki je zagotovil večino njegove strelne moči. Tako so bili vsi činci usposobljeni za njegovo delovanje. [17]

    Bren je imel učinkovit doseg okoli 600 jardov (550 m), ko je bil streljan iz ležečega položaja z dvonožcem. [13] ali bi na bipod lahko prinesel premagano površino 115 jardov za 12 čevljev do 1000 jardov. [18]

    Za lahki mitraljez iz obdobja med vojno in zgodnjo drugo svetovno vojno je imel Bren približno povprečno težo. Na dolgih pohodih na nedelujočih območjih je bil pogosto delno razstavljen, njegova dela pa sta nosila dva vojaka. Zgornja revija je med ognjem vibrirala in se premikala, zaradi česar je bilo orožje bolj vidno v boju, številni strelci Brena pa so za prikrivanje ugledne revije uporabili barve ali improvizirane platnene platnice. [19]

    Revija s 30 krogi je bila v praksi običajno napolnjena s 27 ali 28 naboji, da se prepreči zastoj in prepreči obraba vzmeti revije. Pri nalaganju revije je treba paziti, da je vsak krog pred prejšnjim krogom, da se platišča .303 ne prekrivajo na napačen način, kar bi povzročilo zagozditev. Izrabljene naboje so bile izvržene navzdol, kar je bila izboljšava pri pištoli Lewis, ki se je izvrgla vstran, saj je lahko njihov bleščanje po zraku ogrozilo skrito strelno mesto. [20]

    Na splošno je Bren veljal za zanesljivo in učinkovito lahko strojnico, čeprav so v Severni Afriki poročali, da se redno zatika, razen če je zelo čist in brez peska ali umazanije. [13] Priljubljen je bil pri britanskih četah, ki so spoštovale njegovo zanesljivost in bojno učinkovitost. Kakovost uporabljenih materialov bi na splošno zagotovila minimalno zastoj. Ko se je pištola zagozdila zaradi umazanije, ki jo je povzročilo dolgotrajno streljanje, je operater lahko nastavil štiristopenjski regulator plina, da dovaja več plina v bat, kar poveča moč delovanja mehanizma. Cev je bilo treba odkleniti in rahlo potisniti naprej, da se regulator lahko obrne. Rečeno je bilo celo, da je mogoče vse težave z Brenom preprosto odpraviti s pritiskom na pištolo, obračanjem regulatorja ali obojim. To je bil "po splošnem soglasju najboljši lahki mitraljez na svetu svojega obdobja in najkoristnejše orožje (francoski)" makiji ". Natančno do 1000 metrov in (lahko) je vzdržalo ogromno zlorabe in nekvalificirano uporabo. "Odporniki" so nenehno prosili za največje kapljice Brensa ". [21]

    Čeprav so bili na splošno zelo priljubljeni, so visoki stroški 40 funtov za vsako pištolo predstavljali vprašanje vodstva britanske vojske. To je postalo še večji problem, ko je bilo ugotovljeno, da se je le 2300 od 30.000 topov Bren, izdanih britanskim ekspedicijskim silam, vrnilo v Britanijo po porazu Francije. Posledično sta prihranek stroškov in povečana stopnja proizvodnje postala dva glavna cilja naslednjih variantnih modelov. Zasnova Bren Mk II je poenostavila proizvodnjo z zamenjavo stranskega pogleda bobna z lestvičasto obliko, zaradi česar so noge dvonožcev ne nastavljive, poenostavljen je bil pištolo, med drugimi koraki pa so bili stroški znižani za 20% na 25 % Mk II je bil odobren septembra 1940, v proizvodnjo pa je prišel leta 1941. Čeprav je bil načrt Bren Mk III prav tako namenjen znižanju stroškov, je imel hkrati cilj, da ga olajšajo za vojskovanje v džungli, končni izdelek pa je tehtal 8,8 kg , 3 kilograma lažji od prvotnega modela Bren Mk I, je bil standardiziran julija 1944 in je dosegel 57.600 proizvodov. Julija 1944 je bil standardiziran tudi model Bren Mk IV, ki je bil dodatno olajšan na 8,7 kg, vendar je v proizvodnjo prišel šele julija 1945, pred koncem vojne pa jih je bilo zgrajenih le 250. Medtem ko je Enfield lahko proizvedel le 400 pušk Bren Mk I vsak mesec, so se številna prizadevanja za poenostavitev do leta 1943 povečala na 1.000 pištol na teden. za stacionarno obrambo in ultra poenostavljeno pištolo Besal, ki bo izdelana v primeru, da bi dejansko prišlo do nemške invazije na Veliko Britanijo (kar bi oviralo prizadevanja britanske proizvodnje). Kasnejši modeli proizvodnih pištol Bren so vsebovali kromirane cevi, ki so nudili manjši upor, preprečevali pregrevanje in zmanjševali potrebo po hitri menjavi cevi. [23]

    Pištole Bren so proizvajali tudi zunaj Velike Britanije. V Kanadi je tovarna John Inglis v Torontu začela z orodji za proizvodnjo leta 1938, prvi od 186.000 primerkov je bil dokončan marca 1940. Nekatere pištole Bren, izdelane v Inglisu, so bile podstavljene za 7,92-milimetrsko strelivo Mauser, ki je bilo namenjeno izvozu nacionalističnim kitajskim silam in ne britanskim in Commonwealtha. V Avstraliji je tovarna malega orožja Lithgow v Novem Južnem Walesu leta 1940 začela graditi pištole Bren, skupaj je bilo zgrajenih 17.249. V Indiji je tovarna v Ishaporeju leta 1942 začela graditi pištole Bren (pred tem je proizvajala mitraljeze Vickers-Berthier) in jih bo proizvajala še desetletja po koncu druge svetovne vojne. Veliko pištol Bren, proizvedenih v Ishaporeju, je šlo za indijske čete, ki so med katastrofalnimi kampanjami proti Japoncem v Malaji in Burmi izgubile veliko avtomatskega orožja, na primer 17. indijska pehotna divizija se je z le 56 pištolami Brena znašla le 56 iz Burme leta 1942. [23]

    Na voljo je bil nosilec za stojalo s 42 stopinjami prečkanja, ki je omogočal uporabo Brena kot orožja za posredno streljanje, vendar so ga na terenu redko uporabljali. Bren so uporabljali tudi na številnih vozilih, Universal Carrier je bil znan kot "Bren Gun Carrier" (pravzaprav ime predhodnika), ter na tankih in oklepnih avtomobilih. Ni ga bilo mogoče uporabiti kot koaksialno orožje na tankih, saj je revija omejevala njegovo depresijo in je bila nerodna za rokovanje v zaprtih prostorih, zato so ga uporabljali samo na nosilcu za drobce. (Pas, ki je napajal Vickers ali Besa, slednji je bil še en češkoslovaški mitraljez, ki so ga sprejeli Britanci, pa so bili namesto tega uporabljeni kot soosno orožje.) Neugodna težava se je pojavila, ko je bil Bren izstreljen iz izvidniškega avtomobila Dingo. da se izvrže po vratu voznika, katerega položaj je bil ob drobcu. Platnena vreča je bila zasnovana za ulov kartuš in premagovanje težave, vendar se zdi, da je bila le redko izdana. [20]

    Bren je bil uporabljen tudi v protiletalski vlogi, pri čemer je stativ nastavljen za visokokotni ogenj. Bilo je tudi več modelov manj prenosnih nosilcev, vključno z Viseča dela in Motley nosilci. Za Brena je bila na voljo 100-okrogla revija za uporabo v protiletalski vlogi. [24]

    Brenov neposredni prednik, češkoslovaški ZB vz. 26, so v drugi svetovni vojni uporabljale tudi nemške in romunske sile, vključno z enotami SS Waffen. Številne 7,92 mm lahke mitraljeze ZB so bile poslane na Kitajsko, kjer so jih v drugi svetovni vojni najprej uporabili proti Japoncem, kasneje pa proti silam ZN v Koreji, vključno z enotami Velike Britanije in Commonwealtha. Nekaj ​​nekdanje kitajsko češko orožje ZB je bilo v uporabi tudi v zgodnjih fazah vietnamske vojne. Proizvodnjo okroglega modela 7,92 mm za Daljni vzhod je izvedel kanadski Inglis. Bren je bil dostavljen tudi Sovjetski zvezi kot del programa posojanja [25]

    Povojno urejanje

    Britanska vojska in vojske različnih držav Commonwealtha so uporabljale Bren v korejski vojni, izrednih razmerah v Malaji, vstaji Mau Mau in spopadu Indonezije in Malezije, kjer je bil raje kot zamenjava, L7 s pasom GPMG zaradi manjše teže. V spopadu na Severnem Irskem (1969–1998) je enota britanske vojske v sedemdesetih letih običajno nosila različico Brena L4A4 kot avtomatsko orožje. [26] Med falklandsko vojno leta 1982 je 40 kraljevskih marincev Commando nosilo eno LMG in eno GPMG na odsek. Zadnja operativna napotitev v britanski vojski v omejenem obsegu je bila v prvi zalivski vojni leta 1991. [27]

    Ko je britanska vojska sprejela 7,62-milimetrski Nato vložek, je bil Bren preoblikovan v kaliber 7,62 mm, opremljen z novim vijakom, sodom in nabojem. Ponovno je bil označen kot "lahka mitraljeza L4" (v različnih podvrstah) in je ostal v službi britanske vojske do devetdesetih let. Skrivalec bliskavice, podoben tistemu pri sodobni puški L1 in mitraljezu splošne namene L7, je nadomestil stožčasto skrivalko. Sprememba s platišča z obrobo v okvir brez okvirja in skoraj ravne revije je znatno izboljšala hranjenje in omogočila uporabo 20-okroglih nabojev iz 7,62-milimetrske puške L1A1. Strelci Bren, ki so uporabljali L4A1, so bili običajno izdani s 30-krožno revijo iz SAW L2A1.

    Dokončanje prehoda na 5,56 -milimetrski Natov vložek je privedlo do tega, da je vojska umaknila Bren/L4 s seznama odobrenega orožja in ga nato umaknila iz uporabe. [ potreben citat ]

    Mark III Bren je ostal v omejeni uporabi z rezervo vojske irskih obrambnih sil do leta 2006, ko ga je zamenjal 7,62 mm GPMG. Bren je bil priljubljen pri vojakih, ki so ga streljali (znani kot Brenners), saj je bil lahek in vzdržljiv ter je slovel po natančnosti. Najbolj opazna uporaba iranskih sil Brena je bila v krizi v Kongu v šestdesetih letih, ko je bil Bren standardno avtomatsko orožje redne vojske. [ potreben citat ]

    Pištole Bren so bile v službi med rodezijskimi varnostnimi silami med vojno proti Rodezijskemu grmu, vključno s precejšnjim številom prestavljenih za 7,62-milimetrske naboje, podobne tistim v britanski vojski. [28] The Rhodesian Bren guns continued to see frequent action until the 1970s, when they were largely replaced by the FN MAG. [29] A few were captured and re-issued by the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA). [30] Some examples were still in service with reservists of the British South Africa Police in 1980, and were inherited by the Zimbabwe Republic Police upon the country's internationally recognised independence. [31] Zimbabwean policemen continued to deploy Bren guns during operations against ZIPRA dissidents throughout the early 1980s. [31]

    The South African Defence Force deployed Bren guns during the South African Border War alongside the more contemporary FN MAG as late as 1978. [32]

    Mark 1 Edit

    Introduced September 1937 the original Czechoslovak designed ZGB 33. Overall length 45.5 inches (1.16 m), 25 inches (0.64 m) barrel length. Weight 22 lb 2 oz (10.0 kg).

    • Drum-pattern rear aperture sight
    • Buttstrap for use over-the-shoulder when firing
    • Rear grip under butt
    • Telescoping bipod
    • Folding cocking handle

    An Enfield-made .303 Bren Mk 1 was converted to 7.92mm in 1938 due to the suggestion of a possibility of a British Army change over to a rimless cartridge for machine guns being mooted. [jaz]

    Mark 2 Edit

    Introduced 1941. A simplified version of the Mk1 more suited to wartime production with original design features subsequently found to be unnecessary deleted. [ii] Produced by Inglis of Canada and the Monotype Group through a number of component manufacturing factories. Sometimes known as the "Garage hands" model. Overall length 45.5 inches (1.16 m), 25 inches (0.64 m) barrel length. Weight 23 lb 3 oz (10.5 kg).

    • Folding-leaf rear sight
    • Buttstrap deleted
    • Rear grip deleted
    • Fixed height bipod
    • Fixed cocking handle

    The Bren Mk2 was much simplified in the body, which although still being milled from a solid billet of steel, required significantly fewer milling operations than the Mk1, resulting in a much cleaner appearance. The bipod was simplified in design as well as not having extending legs. Most Mk2 bipods resembled a simple A-frame and were more 'soldier proof'. The Mk2 also featured a slightly higher rate of fire than the Mk1.

    The woodwork on the Mk2 was simplified by being less ornate and ergonomic, which sped up the manufacturing process. The barrel was also simplified by means of a non-stepped removable flash hider and, in some cases, a barrel fore-end that was matte instead of highly polished. The buffered buttplate of the Mk1 was omitted and replaced with a sheet metal buttplate.

    A small number of Inglis-made .303 Bren Mk 2 were converted post-war to fire the .280 in (7 mm) Mk 1Z round used by the EM-2 rifle. [ potreben citat ]

    The Inglis version of the Bren Mk 2 chambered for the .30-06 (7.62 mm) cartridge and known as the M41 was also manufactured in Formosa in 1952. [ potreben citat ]

    Mark 3 Edit

    A shorter and lighter Bren made by Enfield from 1944 for the war in the East and for Airborne Forces. This was similar to the Mk2 but with the light weight features of the early Mk1. With the main distinguishing feature being a shorter barrel and serrated area in front of the barrel nut. Overall length 42.9 in (1.09 m), 22.25 in (0.565 m) barrel length. Weight 19 lb 5 oz (8.8 kg).

    Mark 4 Edit

    As with the Mk3 but this was a conversion of a Mk2. Overall length 42.9 in (1.09 m), 22.25 in (0.565 m) barrel length. Weight 19 lb 2 oz (8.7 kg).

    L4 Edit

    The Bren was converted to 7.62x51mm in the 1950s, and designated the L4. L4 Brens can easily be identified by their straight magazine. The British-issue L4 magazine retains the 30-round capacity and has a slight curve. The L4 magazine was interchangeable with the L1A1 SLR magazine, so the L4 Bren can be seen fitted with straight 20-round magazines from the SLR or with the straight 30-round magazine from the Australian L2A1 or Canadian C2A1 heavy-barrel SLR. The flash suppressor was changed from the cone type of .303 variants to a slotted type similar in appearance to that used on the SLR and L7 GPMG. The L4 remained in British service until the 1990s. [33]


    Vsebina

    In 1943, the Directorate of Tank Design, under Sir Claude Gibb, was asked to produce a new design for a heavy cruiser tank under the General Staff designation A41. After a series of fairly mediocre designs in the A series in the past, and bearing in mind the threat posed by the German 88 mm gun, the War Office demanded a major revision of the design requirements, specifically: increased durability and reliability, the ability to withstand a direct hit from the German 88 mm gun and providing greater protection against mines. Initially in September 1943 the A41 tank was to weigh no more than 40 long tons (45 short tons 41 t) the limit for existing Mark I and Mark II transport trailers and for a Bailey bridge of 80 ft (24 m) span. The British railway loading gauge required that the width should not exceed 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m) and the optimum width was 10 ft 3 in (3.12 m), [14] but, critically, for the new tank this restriction had been lifted by the War Office under pressure from the Department of Tank Design. A high top speed was not important, while agility was to be equal to that of the Comet. A high reverse speed was specified, as during the fighting in southern Italy, Allied tanks were trapped in narrow sunken roads by the German Army. The modified production gearbox had a two-speed reverse, with the higher reverse speed similar to second gear. [15] [16]

    The Department produced a larger hull by adapting the long-travel five-wheel Christie suspension used on the Comet with the addition of a sixth wheel, and extending the spacing between the second and third wheels. The Christie suspension, with vertical spring coils between side armour plates, was replaced by a Horstmann suspension with three horizontally sprung, externally mounted two-wheel bogies on each side. The Horstmann design did not offer the same ride quality as the Christie system, but took up less room and was easier to maintain. [17] In case of damage by mines, individual suspension and wheel units could be replaced relatively easily. The hull was redesigned with welded, sloped armour and featured a partially cast turret with the highly regarded 17 pounder (76.2 mm/3-inch) as the main gun and a 20 mm Polsten cannon in an independent mounting to its left. With a Rover-built Rolls-Royce Meteor engine, as used on the Comet and Cromwell, the new design would have excellent performance. [16]

    But even before the Outline Specification of the A41 was released in October 1943, these limits were removed and the weight was increased from 40 tons to 45 long tons (50 short tons 46 t), because of the need for heavier armour and a wider turret (too wide for the tank to be transported by rail) with a more powerful gun. [18] The new version carried armour equal to the heaviest infantry tanks, while improved suspension and engines provided cross-country performance superior to even the early cruiser tanks. The War Office decided it would be wiser to build new trailers, rather than hamper what appeared to be a superb design. Historian David Fletcher states, "But was Centurion, after all, a Universal Tank? The answer has to be a qualified negative." [19] The design mockup, built by AEC Ltd, was viewed in May 1944. Subsequently, twenty pilot models were ordered with various armament combinations: ten with a 17-pdr and a 20 mm Polsten gun (of which half had a Besa machine gun in the turret rear and half an escape door), five with a 17-pdr, a forward Besa and an escape door, and five with a QF 77 mm gun and a driver-operated hull machine gun. [20]

    Prototypes of the original 40-ton design, the Centurion Mark I, had 76 mm of armour in the front glacis, which was thinner than that on the then current infantry tanks (the Churchill), which had 101 mm or 152 mm on the Churchill Mk VII and VIII being produced at the time. However, the glacis plate was highly sloped, and so the effective thickness of the armour was very high—a design feature shared by other effective designs, such as the German Panther tank and Soviet T-34. The turret was well armoured at 152 mm. The tank was also highly mobile, and easily outperformed the Comet in most tests. The uparmoured Centurion Mark II soon arrived it had a new 118 mm-thick glacis and the side and rear armour had been increased from 38 mm to 51 mm [ potreben citat ]. Only a handful of Mk I Centurions had been produced when the Mk II replaced it on the production lines. Full production began in November 1945 with an order for 800 [21] on production lines at Leyland Motors, Lancashire the Royal Ordnance Factories ROF Leeds and Royal Arsenal, and Vickers at Elswick. The tank entered service in December 1946 with the 5th Royal Tank Regiment. [22]

    Soon after the Centurion's introduction, Royal Ordnance finished work on the 84 mm calibre Ordnance QF 20 pounder tank gun. By this point, the usefulness of the 20 mm Polsten had been called into question, it being unnecessarily large for use against troops, so it was replaced with a Besa machine gun in a completely cast turret. The new Centurion Mark III also featured a fully automatic stabilisation system for the gun, allowing it to fire accurately while on the move, dramatically improving battlefield performance. [23] Production of the Mk 3 began in 1948. [24] The Mk 3 was so much more powerful than the Mk 1 and Mk 2, that the earlier designs were removed from service as soon as new Mk 3s arrived, and the older tanks were then either converted into the Centurion armoured recovery vehicle (ARV) Mark 1 for use by the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers or upgraded to Mk 3 standards. Improvements introduced with the Mk 3 included a more powerful version of the engine and a new gun sight and gun stabiliser. [24]

    The 20 pounder gun was used until the Royal Ordnance Factories introduced the 105 mm L7 gun in 1959. All later variants of the Centurion, from Mark 5/2 on, used the L7. [16]

    Design work for the Mk 7 was completed in 1953, with production beginning soon afterwards. [25] One disadvantage of earlier versions was the limited range, initially just 65 miles (105 km) on hard roads, hence external auxiliary tanks and then a "monowheel" trailer were used. But the Mk7 had a third fuel tank inside the hull, giving a range of 101 miles (163 km). And it was found possible to put the Centurion on some European rail routes with their larger loading gauges. [26]

    The Centurion was used as the basis for a range of specialist equipment, including combat engineering variants with a 165 mm demolition gun Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers (AVRE). [27] It is one of the longest-serving designs of all time, serving as a battle tank for the British and Australian armies from the Korean War (1950–1953) to the Vietnam War (1961–1972), and as an AVRE during Operation Desert Storm in January–February 1991. [27]

    Korean War Edit

    On 14 November 1950, the British Army's 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, equipped with three squadrons of Centurion Mk 3 tanks, landed in Pusan. The first recorded Centurion kill occurred in Busan against a North Korean captured Cromwell tank. [28] Operating in sub-zero temperatures, the 8th Hussars learnt the rigors of winter warfare: their tanks had to be parked on straw to prevent the steel tracks from freezing to the ground. Engines had to be started every half-hour, with each gear being engaged in turn to prevent them from being frozen into place. [29] During the Battle of the Imjin River, Centurions won lasting fame when they covered the withdrawal of the 29th Brigade, with the loss of five tanks, most later recovered and repaired. [30] In 1952, Centurions of the 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards were also involved in the Second Battle of the Hook where they played a significant role in repelling Chinese attacks. Centurions of the 1st Royal Tank Regiment participated in the Third Battle of the Hook [30] repelling the PLA and also were involved in the Battle of the Samichon River in 1953. In a tribute to the 8th Hussars, General John O'Daniel, commanding the US 1st Corps, stated: "In their Centurions, the 8th Hussars have evolved a new type of tank warfare. They taught us that anywhere a tank can go, is tank country: even the tops of mountains." [29] The lack of pintle-mounted machine guns on the turret meant that the Centurion was only able to fire in one direction and so was vulnerable to infantry attacks. [31]

    Deployment in Western Europe Edit

    By early 1952, with the Cold War heating up, NATO needed modern heavy tanks to meet the T-34 versions with the Warsaw Pact countries, and to deter Soviet forces by stationing them with the BAOR in West Germany, where the French had just the light AMX-13, and the Germans had none. America was keen to have Centurions supplied to Denmark and the Netherlands under the Mutual Defence Assistance Program, as production of the M48 Patton would not start until April 1952. A Mk 3 cost £31,000 or £44,000 with ammunition. [32] The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps deployed a regiment of Centurions to Germany to support the Canadian Brigade.

    Suez Crisis Edit

    During the Suez Crisis, British ground commander General Sir Hugh Stockwell believed that methodical and systematic armoured operations centred on the Centurion would be the key to victory. [33]

    The Egyptians destroyed Port Said's Inner Harbour, which forced the British to improvise and use the Fishing Harbour to land their forces. The 2nd Brigade of the Parachute Regiment landed by ship in the harbour. Centurions of the British 6th Royal Tank Regiment were landed and by 12:00 they had reached the French paratroopers. While the British were landing at Port Said, the men of the 2 RPC at Raswa fought off Egyptian counter-attacks featuring SU-100 tank destroyers. [34]

    After establishing themselves in a position in downtown Port Said, 42 Commando headed down the Shari Muhammad Ali, the main north–south road to link up with the French forces at the Raswa bridge and the Inner Basin lock. While doing so, the Marines also took Port Said's gasworks. Meanwhile, 40 Commando supported by the Royal Tank Regiment remained engaged in clearing the downtown of Egyptian snipers. Lieutenant Colonel Norman Tailyour arranged for more reinforcements to be brought in via helicopter. [35] [ potrebno preverjanje ]

    Vietnam War Edit

    In 1967, the Royal Australian Armoured Corps' (RAAC), 1st Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) Squadron transferred to "A" Squadron, 3rd Cavalry Regiment in South Vietnam. Although they successfully conducted combat operations in their areas of operations, reports from the field stated that their lightly-armoured M113A1 armoured personnel carriers were unable to force their way through dense jungle [36] limiting their offensive actions against enemy forces. The Australian government, under criticism in Parliament, decided to send a squadron of Australian Centurion tanks to South Vietnam. [36] The 20-pdr armed [37] Australian Centurions of 'C' Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment landed in South Vietnam on 24 February 1968, being headquartered at Nui Dat in III Corps (MR3). [38]

    Colonel Donald Dunstan, later to be governor of South Australia, was the deputy task force commander of the 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) in South Vietnam [39] Dunstan had quite possibly been the last Australian to use tanks and infantry in a combined operation during the Second World War, (as part of the Bougainville campaign), and the first since the war to command Australia's tanks and infantry in combat. [40] When he temporarily took over command during Brigadier Ronald Hughes's absence, he directed that the Centurions be brought up from Nui Dat to reinforce firebases Coral in Balmoral, believing that they were a strong element that were not being used. Besides adding a great deal of firepower, Dunstan stated, he "couldn't see any reason why they [the Centurions] shouldn't be there". [41] His foresight enabled 1 ATF to kill approximately 267 soldiers from the 141st and 165th North Vietnamese Army Regiments during the six-week-long Battle of Coral–Balmoral in May 1968, as well as capturing 11 prisoners, 36 crew-served weapons, 112 small arms, and other miscellaneous enemy weapons. [42]

    After the Battle of Coral-Balmoral, a third Centurion troop, which included two tankdozers, was formed. By September 1968, 'C' Squadron was brought to its full strength of four troops, each equipped with four Centurion tanks. By 1969, 'B' Squadron, 3rd Cavalry 'A' Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment 'B' Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment and 'C' Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment, had all made rotations through South Vietnam. Originally deployed as 26 Centurion tanks, after three and a half years of combat operations, 58 Centurions had served in country 42 had suffered battle damage with six beyond repair and two crewmen had been killed in action. [36]

    The Centurion crews, after operating for a few weeks in country, soon learned to remove the protective armoured side skirts from both sides of the tank, to prevent the vegetation and mud from building up between the track and the mudguards. Each Centurion in Vietnam normally carried a basic load of 62 rounds of 20 pounder shells, 4,000 rounds of .50 cal and 9,000 rounds of .30 cal machine gun ammunition for the tank commander's machine gun as well as the two coaxial machine guns. [43] They were equipped with petrol engines, which necessitated the use of an extra externally mounted 100-imperial-gallon (450 L) fuel tank, which was attached to the vehicle's rear. [37] [44]

    Indo-Pakistani wars Edit

    In 1965, the bulk of India's tank fleet was older M4 Sherman tanks, but India also had Centurion Mk.7 tanks, with the 20 pounder gun, and also AMX-13 and M3 Stuart light tanks. The Centurion Mk.7 at that time was one of the most modern western tanks. [45] [46]

    The offensive of Pakistan's 1st Armoured Division was blunted at the Battle of Asal Uttar on 10 September. Six Pakistani armored regiments were opposed by three Indian armoured regiments. One of these regiments, 3 Cavalry, fielded 45 Centurion tanks. The Centurion, with its 20-pounder gun and heavy armour, proved to be more than a match for the M47 and M48 Pattons. [47] On the other side, when Pakistani Army armoured division primary composed of M47 Pattons and M48 Pattons, they proved to be only able to penetrate a few of the Centurion tanks, as witnessed in the Battle of Chawinda in the Sialkot sector. A post-war US study of the tank battles in South Asia concluded that the Patton's armor could, in fact, be penetrated by the 20-pounder tank gun (84 mm) of the Centurion (later replaced by the even-more successful L7 105mm gun on the Mk. 7 version which India also possessed) as well as the 75 mm tank gun of the AMX-13 light tank. [ potreben citat ]

    In 1971, at the Battle of Basantar, an armoured division and an armoured brigade of the Pakistani I Corps confronted two armoured brigades of the Indian I Corps, which had Centurion tanks. This resulted in a substantial tank battle, between the American-built tanks of the Pakistani Army and the Indian Army's mixture of Soviet T-55s and British Centurions. Casualties were heavily skewed against the Pakistani force, with 46 tanks destroyed.


    Zgodovina

    Once the Challenger was established as the latest MBT for the British army following the decommissioning of the older Chieftain tank, it entered service with the British Army in 1983.

    The British Army chose to test this newly designated tank in the Canadian Army Trophy (CAT) competition in West Germany, 1986. Once in the competition and despite having adequate scores, the Challengers were amongst the last in the score tables versus the equally powerful Abrams and Leopards. This proved to be discouraging results, as it was hoped the all-around better Challengers would provide excellent results this time unlike the older Chieftain - distinctly on the mobility and off-road abilities as the new Rolls-Royce CV12 provided almost twice the horsepower of the Chieftain's Leyland L60 Powerpack.

    The apparent complete failure on the CAT went further to the British Army withdrawing from the competition in 1987, leaving statements like the following:

    I do not believe that the performance of tanks in the artificial circumstances of a competition, such as the recent Canadian Army Trophy, is a proper indication of their capability in war. Challenger's gun gives the best penetrative performance against the tanks of a potential enemy. The tank itself is arguably the best protected in the world and has excellent mobility. It carries an advanced thermal imaging system which is much admired by our allies and ensures that Challenger can fight effectively by night and by day. Participation in international tank gunnery competitions is one useful option in the complete spectrum of training opportunities available in preparing our tank crews for war, but it is not on its own a basis for judgment of overall capability.

    — Ian Stewart, former Minister for the Armed Forces when asked if he is satisfied with the standard of British tank international gunnery demonstrated in recent competitions and if he will make a statement.

    Before the Gulf War, the Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) updated the Challenger 1 Mk.2 into the Mk.3 with even more armour protection, increased operational range, desert filters amongst other internal refits. This was the first mass-production use of the Royal Ordnance-made ROMOR-A, of over 250 armour sets were going to be used in the imminent Desert storm - These packages were also included in the Centurion AVRE deploying along with the Challengers 1.

    Numerous Challengers were up-armoured by to Mk.3 desert modification with packages of explosive reactive armour (ERA) ROMOR-A in the lower frontal plate and non-energetic reactive armour (NERA) in the sides - this NERA proved to be safer from accidental detonations for any possible friendly units adjacent to the tank. It was estimated the upgrades would increase the protection in these reinforced areas up to 95% against the performance of shaped charges or ATGMs of approximately 127 mm.

    The armour requirements were exponentially increasing because new lethal weaponry as the infamously portable Soviet RPG-7 became the most widely used anti-tank weapon in the world. The revolutionary and yet classified to this day Chobham armour proved extremely reliable against most possible frontal engagements. However, areas like the side armour or the lower frontal plate remained a weak spot against the powerful anti-tank armaments been constantly developed.

    3 days after of the US-designated Desert storm operation started, the vast miles of desert defended by Iraqi forces were damaged by French and American aerial and ground attacks but fiercely resisting. It was then the only UK armoured division, the 1st Armoured Division headed to combat under the British code name of Operation Grandby. They were equipped with Warriors acting as the mechanized infantry and Challengers leading the spearhead of the assault.

    Charging along with the US' 1st Calvary division, the Challengers Mk.2 and Mk.3 advanced with low visibility conditions and sand storm, during day and night. This advantage is granted to the technologically superior Thermal Observation Gunnery Sight (TOGS) system, that enabled the tank commanders to designate targets in complete darkness. The developing GPS technology also proved vital to increase the mobility of the tanks squadrons in the desert.

    On February 27, 1991, Battle of Norfolk part of the Battle of 73 Easting. One of the major battles for the Challenger 1 MBT took part. It allowed the British tanks to achieved over 200 Iraqi tank kills and other various vehicles kill with no losses. This ardent engagements at long and very close distances versus the sand-dug Iraqi T-55s and T-62s allowed the Challenger to prove its true combat capabilities.

    A Challenger 1 got the longest tank kill of all time, at a range of over 4.6 km, when it knocked out an Iraqi tank with an APFSDS round!

    Lt Col Tim Purbrick, Queen's Royal Irish Hussars Battlegroup for the Liberation of Kuwait recollects

    First, Gus's 4,700 m first round FIN kill. It was a supreme technical achievement for man and machine. 4,700m, a shade under 3 miles, is more than three times the 1,200 m battle range of the Challenger. The shot is written up in books, sometimes incorrectly, with one book saying it was a Depleted Uranium (DU) round, it wasn't, it was a normal service FIN round while another book said it was at longer range, it wasn't, it was 4,700 m. I believe that it is the longest range direct fire kinetic round kill ever achieved by a tank on the battlefield.

    The Challenger regiments were given several of the specially conceived depleted Uranium APFSDS L26A1 rounds also known as "Jericho". In case of facing the ultimate adversary, the Iraqi Republican's guard T-72M these engagements never occurred but the round was applied years later in the intended user, the Challenger 2.

    Despite the early perceived poor fidelity of the tank, the Challenger 1 fought till the end of the war without major losses but minor external damages. They travelled approximately 350 km in the desert till the final Gulf war objective the Basra Highway north of Multa Ridge on February 27, 1991.

    Challenger is a tank built for war and not for competitions.

    — Patrick Cordingley, Commander of 7th Armoured Brigade

    The Challengers 1 continued their British service until the 99's as part of the KFOR, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force in Kosovo.

    Eventually with most of the 400 tanks being sold or gifted in the 2000s to Jordan, in which the King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau innovated with newer technologies, a rebirth tank, known locally as Al-Hussein. The Jordanians developed an upgrade package prototype unveiled in 2003, adding a crew-less turret fitted with a powerful Swiss RUAG Defense Systems 120 mm/L50 smoothbore with auto-loader, hunter-killer system, laser warning system, thermal imaging and Soft-Kill Active Protection this variant is known as the Falcon turret.

    The Challenger 1 Mk.2 and Mk.3 were replaced by the Challenger 2 in the UK service but is still in service until this day in Jordan where the large fleet is being gradually replaced by the more modern French MBT, the Leclerc.


    Off-site Resources

    15 August 2008 - Benchmark
    17 January 2009 - Added picture of 14" (35.6 cm) shell being stowed
    19 January 2009 - Updated ammunition information
    15 September 2009 - Removed picture mislabled as "New York"
    26 November 2009 - Added axes measurement for two-gun turrets
    20 September 2010 - Added information on USS Texas turret arrangements, updated links to Tom Scott's website
    22 April 2015 - Redid photograph of USS New York
    11 July 2016 - Converted to HTML 5 format
    04 October 2018 - Reorganized notes


    Splošni podatki

    Survivability and armour

    • Cast homogeneous armour (hull front, turret front half, cupola)
    • Rolled homogeneous armour (hull sides, hull rear, hull roof, turret rear half, turret roof, cupola roof)
    • Suspension wheels and tracks are 20 mm thick while bogies are 19 mm thick.
    • Armour thickness throughout the vehicle is very complex and the tank relies more on sloping thickness to enhance its effective armour.
    • The metal boxes on the sides of the turret and hull are 13 mm of structural steel.
    • The belly of the Chieftain Mk 3 is 15 mm thick (6°).

    A major improvement from previous British MBTs is the Chieftain's thick, sloped armour. Reaching a compound-angled 152 mm on the turret and a respectable 86 mm at 71° on the upper front hull, the Chieftain can actually resist point-blank shots from some cannons it will face at its battle rating. In an up-tier, however, most of these benefits have less impact. This tank should avoid exposing its hull as certain tanks at 8.3 and above can penetrate the hull with an APFSDS shot, knocking out the entire crew or detonating an ammo rack. The armour around the gun breech leaves something to be desired. Lower-rank APDS rounds (e.g. a T-54/55's APDS) can penetrate the right turret face at closer ranges, incapacitating the gunner and commander. The lower glacis is 76 mm at 45°, leading to a significant disadvantage in close-range engagements. Even 7.3 tanks (and many below 7.3) will always penetrate the lower glacis. The Chieftain also has thin side armour, meaning that the tank is vulnerable to flank attacks. The thin side armour also means angling the hull is not effective. A Chieftain should remain hull down (at the very least covering the lower frontal plate) to best take advantage of its armour profile.

    Mobilnost

    Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
    Forward Vzvratno Zaloga Upgraded Zaloga Upgraded
    Arcade 46 11 54.4 1,023 1259 18.81 23.14
    Realistic 41 10 584 660 10.74 12.13

    The Chieftain Mk 3 suffers from a poor power-to-weight ratio. It is slow to reach its top speed of 45 km/h on almost any surface and will turn very slowly even when all mobility modules are researched. The Chieftain Mk 3 especially struggles uphill and when pivoting. It has decent reverse speed (

    -9.4 km/h, compared to the -13 km/h reverse speed of tanks on the Centurion chassis).

    Modifications and economy

    The first upgrades to head for are Deli in FPE for increased survivability. Then prioritize mobility upgrades (the Chieftain Mk 3 needs all the mobility it can get) and gun accuracy upgrades (to further enhance its accurate fire).

    • Deli
    • FPE
    • Tracks (critical for hull rotation speed)
    • Adjustment of Fire
    • Elevation Mechanism
    • Horizontal Drive
    • Other mobility upgrades as needed

    Vickers Machine Gun (Gun, Machine, Vickers, .303in, Mk 1)

    Authored By: Dan Alex | Last Edited: 03/19/2019 | Vsebina in kopija www.MilitaryFactory.com | Naslednje besedilo je izključno za to spletno mesto.

    Like most other medium support machine systems born around the turn of the century, the British Vickers Medium Machine Gun originated from the revolutionary Maxim series of 1889 after the Maxim concern acquired competitor Nordenfelt (to become Maxim-Nordenfelt) in 1888 and, ultimately, became a part of Vickers in 1897 (as Vickers, Sons & Maxim). The Maxim type saw widespread acceptance, adoption and copy by many a world power during its operational tenure and appeared in varying forms. The Vickers copy - essentially an improved Maxim - was primarily differentiated from the original in its inversion of the toggle locking action. Vickers also took to reducing the overall weight of the original product and introduced aluminum in concert with the required steel fabrication process. The result was one of the most successful battlefield machine guns ever developed - a design that would see extensive combat service through two world wars and countless localized conflicts to follow. The type formally served with British forces from 1912 to 1968 while a plethora of global users were noted the world over.

    The original Maxim machine gun was developed by American Hiram Maxim of Maine who became a British citizen in 1900. The weapon relied on one of the first uses of recoil operation known with patents appearing as far back as 1883. Maxims served well into the 1950s despite their late-1880s origins even seeing action in the Korean War (1950-1953).

    The British Army adopted the new Vickers design in 1912 (as the "Gun, Machine, Vickers, .303in Mark 1") and it became its standard support machine gun thereafter. The weapon was initially categorized as a "heavy machine gun" though this designation later gave way to a medium classification upon the arrival of other truly heavy weapons. In the field, the design structure proved robust and the action was highly reliable. Key detriments lay in jamming at the feed and the generally slow rate-of-fire for a weapon of this class. As the Vickers Machine Gun was a complete weapons "system", the design was much more than the gun itself. The entire Vickers Machine Gun system consisted of the machine gun proper, the water condensing can containing the required water supply for cooling, the condensing hose running from the can to the barrel jacket, an optional integrated collimating sight at the rear of the receiver, a wooden ammunition box containing 250 rounds of .303 British cartridges served from fabric belts and the gun mount (Maxim-type sledge or - later - a collapsing tripod). A canvas jacket could be wrapped around the barrel jacket to reduce rising heat from blurring vision ahead of the sight. A muzzle booster could be fitted at the barrel business end for an improved rate-of-fire, providing additional recoil force to the firing action. The operator managed the firing action and traverse through a pair of spade grips fitted at the rear of the receiver. The hinged cocking handle was set to the right side of the body in a conventional fashion.

    Of note here is the water-cooled nature of machine guns like the Vickers. These weapons relied on a steady water supply pumped into a barrel jacket that surrounded the barrel assembly. During firing, this action served to cool a hot barrel and prevent it from overheating and fracturing or deforming. The condenser can used in water-cooled machine guns - while supplying the barrel jacket with water - also served to condense some of the steam being generated by the heat of the barrel. If this were not so, the position of the machine gun and crew would be quickly given away to the enemy with the rising steam being the primary indicator. For the Vickers series, the water surrounding the barrel in the jacket would start to evaporate after roughly 750 rounds had been fired. A fresh water supply was as necessary as was an ammunition supply.

    The Vickers fired the .303 British cartridge from a 250-round canvas belt. The cartridge was developed in 1888 and first adopted in the Lee-Metford service rifle series before becoming the standard British and Commonwealth cartridge around the world. The cartridge itself was a rimmed design with a noticeable bottleneck and a proven manstopper. The Vickers machine gun action itself revolved around a recoil operation with gas boosting capable of a sustained rate-of-fire of 450 to 500 rounds per minute. Muzzle velocity was rated at 2,450 feet per second with an effective range out to 2,190 yards - maximum ranges out to 4,500 yards though with less accuracy. Sighting was primarily through iron mountings but a collimating sight could be used for long-range service (introduced in 1943). The weapon weighed between 33lbs and 50lbs which required multiple crew for its operation and transport.

    Due to the need for multiple components to make the Vickers an effective fighting tool, at least three personnel were required in its management. The primary operator managed the firing function while the secondary operator managed the ammunition supply and feed while helping to clear jams as needed. The third operator supported the initial two and managed the critical water supply during combat. For transport, the weapon was broken down into gun, mounting, ammunition and water supply before relocating to new positions. As such, the Vickers was a cumbersome and heavy breed of weapon but this was somewhat offset by her tactical value and her repeating firepower were well appreciated in warfare. While the weapon could be traversed from left to right in the normal sense, it could also provide plunging arc fire as an ad hoc light "artillery" weapon if need be.

    In practice, the Vickers reliability was showcased through all types of abuse and fighting environments. The weapon could get wet, dirty or muddy and remain as capable as the day it left the factory lines and in the brutal, unforgiving nature that was trench warfare, this reliability was very much respected. Furthermore, it could be used as an offensive or defensive minded weapon as needed - supporting allied troop actions or defending key positions with equal fervor and no modification required. The type prove so effective that it was adopted for use in all manner of aircraft, naval surface ships and vehicles. As a battlefield support weapon during World War 1, the Vickers gave an excellent account of herself and was well-liked by her crews - considered by many to be the best machine gun of the conflict.

    During World War 2, leftover stocks of Vickers guns came into play once more. Large quantities were lost in the Dunkirk evacuations and thusly production ramped up to meet demand - now incorporating time-saving measures to produce guns in quantity. Early versions of the Vickers Machine Gun thusly featured corrugated jackets while these later streamlined forms now sported smooth jackets. The Mark 8Z "boat-tailed" cartridge was also introduced during the war to provide increased ranges out to 4,500 yards and keep the turn-of-the-century weapon viable for one more World War.

    The initial production model became the Mk 1 form which served until 1968. The Mk 1* was an air-cooled aircraft derivative mounted to fighters beginning in 1916 (World War 1) with reduced weight (28lbs) and revised barrel jacket. The Mk 2 was brought online in 1917 and based on the airborne Mk 1* series with further reduced weight (22lbs). The aircraft-bound air-cooled Mk 2* soon followed in 1927 and was highly based on the Mk 2 before it though with a revised feed mechanism - feeding from either the left or right side - producing the Mk 2*(a) and Mk 2*(b) subvariants respectively. In 1928, the Vickers Mk 3 was unveiled and this was based on the Mk 2* with a longer flash hider for use on aircraft. The Mk 4 was developed during the span of 1929-1930 as a vehicle weapon but only completed as working prototypes. The Mk 4B was similar in scope and fitted to vehicles with a redesigned barrel jacket. The Mk 5 of 1932 was another aircraft-mounted version based on the Mk 3 with redesigned receiver access. The water-cooled Mk 6 of 1934 was based on the Mk 4B and intended for vehicular use as was the similar Mk 6*. The mount was improved as was the barrel jacket. The Mk 7 was another vehicle-mounted machine gun system and based on the preceding Mk 6. This sported a reinforced mounting system with a heavier barrel jacket. Many Vickers aircraft machine guns were replaced by other more capable types before World War 2. The Vickers, as anti-infantry machine guns on heavy-class tanks, were largely replaced by the Besa series marks though it saw extended service on light- and medium-class types until the end of World War 2.

    A large heavy duty version of the Vickers design existed in 12.7mm form and known rather informally as the "Big Vickers" or "Vickers .50". These were produced in marks Mk 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 and utilized by the United Kingdom and Ireland from 1932 onwards. The Mk 1 proved the developmental model while the Mk 2, 4 and 5 were base support and vehicle-mounted versions until largely replaced by Besa machine guns. The Mk 3 was a navalized variant for use on ships.

    As the Vickers Machine Gun soldiered on into the Cold War with British Army forces, it was not until the arrival of the L7A1 General Purpose Machine Gun of the mid-1960s that the Vickers design was formally removed from frontline service. British Royal Marines continued use of the type into the 1970s. When the Vickers Machine Gun was offeredfor overseas purchase it saw large-scale success. To coincide with local requirements, the Vickers system was applicably chambered. As such, the type also existed in 6.5mm Arisaka (Japan), 7x57 Mauser (Germany), 8mm Lebel (France) and 7.62x54R (Russia) calibers to name a few. During the Cold War, it was modified to take the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge.

    The United States Army utilized the British design as the "US Machine Gun, Caliber .30in, M1915" with local production under license through Colt, seeing service in World War 1 with American troops. These were naturally revised to accept the US-standard .30-06 cartridge (M1906). The Mexican Army procured the American version in 1922 and knew these as the "Ametrallador Modelo 1915". In 1925, Lithgow of Australia began localized production of the Vickers Mk 1 series and were more or less direct copies utilizing the same .303 British cartridge. In Australian Army use, the Vickers was later replaced in service by the MAG 58 series. India and Pakistan were long-time users of the Vickers series and still hold many in active reserve today (2012).


    Plot [ edit | uredi vir]

    The Events all happen during the Landings on Normandy on June 6,1944.

    1 Story where you play as Sgt.Ethan Robbins of the 101st Airborne,He & his fellow paratroopers are to jump into normandy,

    Another Story where you play as Cpl.Keith Rogers of the British 6th Airborne,where & his fellow paratroopers ride in a glider

    Another Story where you play as Cpl.Danny Kendall of the S.O.E.,where he & some S.O.E. Lads,led by Cpt Douglas Joyce,were to go to Normandy a bit early,to meet up with the French Maquis,

    Another Story where you play as Pfc.Nick Knuckle of the American 3rd Rangers,where they are to land on Ohama beach,

    Another Story where you play as Sgt.James Hornbuckle of the British 79th Armoured Division,as well as 1 time,Cpl.Percy Morgan Jr,from same unit,the British 79th made a landing on Gold Beach,

    Another Story where you play as L/Cpl.Jack Edmond Clarke of the Canadian 3rd Infantry Division,where they made a landing on Juno Beach,

    Last Story where you play as Sonia Le Tueur of the French Maquis,maquis HS Located in Avion,Pas-de-Calais (Hauts-de-France),France,


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