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Pogled na cerkev Vahramashen in uničena kopališča

Pogled na cerkev Vahramashen in uničena kopališča


Južna gorska letovišča

Nest ob pobočjih Južne gore, nekaj kilometrov zahodno od Readinga, je veliko impozantnih struktur, ki se raztezajo po zelenici gozdov in jasah vzpetin, ki obkrožajo Libanonsko dolino.

Neznancu, ki se vozi po cesti 422, so te zgradbe lahko podobne ruševinam srednjeveških gradov. Tudi zdaj in v tem novem svetu, ki nima gradov, te zgradbe govorijo o veličini prejšnjega dne. Te razvite strukture pa niso razglasile slave fevdalne moči. Njihova plemenitost je bila v njihovi predanosti obnovi zdravja tistih, ki so trpeli bolečino, njihov sijaj pa je odražal visoke namene moških medicine, ki so jih zgradili.

Pred sto leti medicina ni bila natančna znanost, kot je danes. Napredek na katerem koli študijskem področju se mora razvijati s teorijo in eksperimentom. V drugi polovici 19. Za take izvajalce se ne bi mogli zanesti na predelane naravne oblike, kot so tablete, injekcije in drugi materiali sodobne medicine. Tega ne bi smeli razlagati tako, da ni znanja o medicini ali da se sodobna zdravljenja posmehujejo prizadevanjem prejšnjih zdravnikov. Sprememba, ki jo poznamo danes, je stvar stopnje poudarka. Z napredovanjem laboratorijskih znanosti in medicinskih raziskav je vodno zdravljenje ali hidropatija postalo manj pomembno pri zdravljenju motenj, izdelane stavbe v bližini zdravilišč in na vrhovih gora pa so za te namene postale neuporabne.

Večina zdravilišč, znanih kot sanatoriji, je bilo v tistem segmentu Južne gore, ki leži na območju današnjega mesta Južni Heidelberg v okrožju Berks. Wernersville je bil takrat, tako kot zdaj, najbližja skupnost, ki je imela prednost pogostih potniških železniških storitev, v prejšnjih dneh pa je bil železniški promet glavno sredstvo potovanja med oddaljenimi točkami. Od prvega leta od odprtja postaje Wernersville pri podružnici Libanonske doline podružnice Reading Railroad (1857) do začetka uporabe avtomobila v splošno uporabo so vsi bolniki, gostje in tovor, namenjeni v letovišča South Mountain, prispeli na postajo Wernersville. Več sto gostov, ki so prihajali ali odhajali na kateri koli vlak, je bil običajen pojav.

Starci se spominjajo, da je kontraadmiral Edwin Longenecker, prebivalec Wernersvillea po upokojitvi (1912) iz 45-letne službe v ameriški mornarici, bil neuradni gostitelj tujcem, ko so izstopili iz vagonov vlakov in nato odhiteli čakalni vagoni, ki so bili parkirani v bližini postaje in jih odpeljali v izbrana letovišča. Stroški potovanja s konjskimi vpregami od Wernersvillea do gore so bili petindvajset centov na osebo. Vozi so lahko sprejeli od štiri do dvajset potnikov.

Ta naselja so bila v treh četrtletjih svojega delovanja znana pod različnimi imeni. Tu jih bomo označili z imeni, ki se najpogosteje uporabljajo ob koncu njihovega delovanja, in podali kratko zgodovino za vsako od večjih ustanov.

Prva oseba, ki jo je South Mountain pritegnil z namenom ustanovitve zdravstvenega doma, je bil dr. Charles E. Leisenring, rojen v Nemčiji. Prišel je v jugovzhodno Pensilvanijo z enim samim namenom, da bi zgradil sanatorij. Po raziskavi možnosti v Ephrati v okrožju Lancaster in različnih izvirih v bližini mesta Reading se je odločil, da mu te točke, čeprav dobre, ne morejo zagotoviti obilne oskrbe z vodo, ki jo potrebuje za svoje podjetje.

Cushion Hill na južni gori je ustrezala namenu Leisenringa. Med letoma 1847 in 1855 je zgradil svoje prve hišice in pokril izvire, ki jih je našel na novo pridobljeni parceli 50 hektarjev. Njegov podvig je bil znan pod različnimi imeni, med katerimi je bilo najpogosteje “Cushion Hill Water Cure, ” drugo, “Cold Spring Water Cure ” in včasih “Mountain Resort. ” Leisenring ’s smrt junija 1857 prekinil razširitev njegovih izdelanih načrtov. Ustanovo je vodil “Mr. Adolphus ” (ime ni znano) do leta 1865, ko sta nepremičnino kupila dr. In gospa Aaron Smith. Dr. Smith in njegova žena sta diplomirala na šoli za hidropatijo. Kraj so preimenovali v “Hygiean Home ”, da bi ločili njegove namene od “vodnega zdravljenja ” dr. Leisenringa. Smiths je predstavil številne nove prakse, kot so masaže, “električni tretmaji ” in podobno. Razširili so stavbe, dodali nove in uspešno delovali od 1865 do 1873.

Reuben D. Wenrich in dr. James W. Deppen, dva lokalna zdravnika, sta nepremičnino kupila od posestva Smith (1879) in jo preimenovala v sanatorij Grand-View. Glavna stavba (zdaj znana kot hotel) je bila povečana na velikost, ki bi lahko sprejela 150 gostov.

Njegov položaj je odkrival veličasten pogled na Libanonsko dolino. Solarij v šestem nadstropju je bil tu zaprt v steklo, tisti, ki so trpeli zaradi revmatizma, živčne izčrpanosti in drugih bolezni, so se lahko sončili in tako zagotovili koristi južnega podnebja.

Zdravljene bolezni so bile v glavnem kronične, a ozdravljive. Zdravniki so menili, da je podnebje še posebej koristno za kataralna stanja, revmo, protin, živčno prostracijo in težave z jetri. Njihovo zdravljenje razen medicinskega je vključevalo masažo, elektriko v različnih oblikah, solne brise, parne in žveplove kopeli.

Voda “Pavilion Spring ”, ki se je izkazala za najbolj koristno pri boleznih ledvic, jeter in želodca, je bila dobro znana. Voda iz tega izvira je bila prodana v skoraj vseh zveznih državah. Leta 1890 je bila cena 1 bbl., 40 galonov 6,00 USD 1/2 bbl., 3,50 USD 1 ohišje 12 1/2 galonskih steklenic, 2,70 USD 5 galon v 1/2-galonskih steklenicah, 2,00 USD, dostavljeno f.o.b. Wernersville.

Kapela Grand-View (nesektaška) je čudovito poslopje, zgrajeno iz sivega apnenca, z vitražnimi okni in lahko sprejme 100 ljudi. Kapelico z vseh strani obdajajo zimzelena in drena, ki dajejo zelo slikovito okolico.

Po smrti dr. Deppena leta 1895 je dr. Wenrich še naprej upravljal “Grand-View. ” Imel je kot svoja sodelavca svoja dva sinova, dr. George G. in dr. John A. Wenrich. William F. Muhlenberg in dr. Daniel B. D. Beaver iz Readinga sta se posvetovala z zdravniki in kirurgi.

Ta sanatorij je bil zaprt po smrti dr. Reubena Wenricha leta#8217. Glavna stavba še vedno stoji, vendar nikoli več ni bila zasedena kot zdravilišče. Danes sta večji del Grand-Viewa v lasti dveh bratov, Anthonyja in Sebastiana Bodanze.

Dr. Walters ’ Mountain Park

V obdobju med letom 1873 je konec družine Smith deloval Hygiean Home (Grand-View) in njegov nakup dr. Wenrich in Deppen (1879) sta letovišče od posestva Smith najela dr. Robert Walter in njegova žena Eunice, prav tako zdravnica.

Med svojim triletnim delovanjem v domu Hygiean je dr. Walter prišel do zaključka, da je za združitev vseh njegovih zamisli potrebna še kakšna druga ustanova. Njegovo mladost je preživel kot invalid, prisiljen se je preseliti iz ene kurativne ustanove v drugo.

Nekoč, leta 1868, zapiše, da je bil na mestu smrti. ” Svoje okrevanje je pripisal kombinaciji čistega zraka, sveže vode, vadbe, švedskega gibanja, masaže in električne uporabe različne vrste.

Leta 1876 je ustanovil ustanovo, ki se je dolga leta nosila kot Walterjev park#8217s na južni gori pod Wernersvilleom. O svojem zdravljenju je leta 1909 dejal:

Ta sistem zdravljenja sem prvič organiziral v Wernersvilleu, o njegovem uspehu pa najbolje govorijo neštete institucije po vsej državi, ki so sprejele naziv in zdravljenje izvajale, kolikor vedo. Robert Walter je bil res individualist. Napis, ki ga je napisal za svoj nagrobnik (na cerkvenem pokopališču Hain ’s, Wernersville) pet let pred smrtjo (1921), daje vpogled v njegovo osebnost in prepričanje: WALTER-Dr. Robert Walter, dvakrat ohromljen in razglašen za brezupno neozdravljivega, je že šestdeset let nosil tako imenovano srčno bolezen, obubožano z medicinskim empirizmom leta 1873, v Wernersville je prišel obremenjen z odlično idejo, a mu je ob pomoči plemenite pomoči priskočil na pomoč. Zdravstveni tretmaji so popolnoma novi, rezultati zanj in za 15.000 drugih pa so izjemno pomembni. Zato je PRAVA SANATORIJSKA IDEJA, moč življenja, ki izhaja iz bolnika, edina moč zdravljenja. Vsa zdravila, za katera se zdi, da povečujejo to moč, jo namesto tega zmanjšujejo z izdatki in ponavadi preprečujejo okrevanje, medtem ko se zdi, da jo spodbujajo. To je bil Walterjev zaključek po desetih letih in#8217 izkušnjah, ki ga zdaj potrjuje 50 -letno preverjanje#8217. Pravilen bo živel po veri, edini znanstveni podlagi.

V času svojega največjega razvoja je park Walter ’s obsegal 500 hektarjev gorske zemlje. Glavna stavba je bila dolga 300 čevljev in visoka pet nadstropij. Zgrajen kot srednjeveški grad, se je stisnil ob zelena pobočja Južne gore, čudovit pogled, ki ga je mogoče videti s katere koli razgledne točke v Libanonski dolini na severu.

“Ni malarija, niti komarji, niti rosa ” so se ponosno ponašali z Walterjevim parkom. Zavetje so poiskali številni ugledni gostje, med njimi vdova generala Stonewall Jacksona in veliki državnik William Jennings Bryan. Kraj je bil opremljen z električnimi lučmi, hidravličnim dvigalom, krožno knjižnico in hlevom za livrije, v katerem so bili jahani konji standardne pasme. Preudarnim gostom so ponudili bazen, biljard, tenis, kegljanje, kroket in številne druge zabave.

Po smrti dr. Walterja je park “park ” prešel v last korporacije, ki je mesto preimenovala v “South Mountain Manor ”, nekaj let zatem pa je še naprej opravljala nekatere storitve, ki jih je imela nekdanja ustanova je ponudil.

V zadnjih letih je postal sedež športne bratovščine, ki privablja ljubitelje gora iz bližnjih metropolitanskih območij. Danes je to beli slon v lasti proizvajalca tekstila v Philadelphiji in njegovih sodelavcev.

Preston

Poletno letovišče “Preston Sunny Side ” je ustanovil dr. James S. Preston leta 1880, upravljal pa ga je sin James po 1882. Stavbe so bile iz kamna in okvirja, tri nadstropje visoke in so jih povezovali pokriti trgi. Tam je bilo nastanjenih 125 gostov. Piazze so imele čudovit razgled na dolino Lancaster. Ozemlje je bilo slikovito in privlačno, obsegalo pa je obsežen gozdni park. Gora v zadnjem delu letovišča, ki sega do vrat, je bila posejana z velikimi borovci, cedro in drevesi. Lep prizor, še posebej spomladi v letu. Letovišče je obsegalo več kot 500 hektarjev, večinoma gozd. Opazovalnica na vrhu gore je predstavila panoramo, vključno z najbolj popolnim pogledom na doline Lancaster in Libanon.

Leta 1913 sta gospod in gospa Preston prodala svoje letovišče podjetju Galen Hall Co., Atlantic City, New Jersey. Znatno so ga povečali in od takrat vodijo kot prvovrstni hotel. To je edino letovišče na celotni gori. Znano je po svojem čudovitem in zapletenem igrišču za golf ter po konvencijah spomladi in jeseni. Eno prvih kongresov, ki so po vsej državi pritegnili veliko pozornosti, je leta 1915 priredila industrija gibljivih slik. Wernersville je bil takrat v krogu novinarjev. Nekateri od tistih, ki so se udeležili konvencije, so bili filmski zvezdniki Pearl White, Mabel Normand, Marguerite Clark, Francis X. Bushman, John Bunny, “Fatty ” Arbuckle-in še vedno lahko predstavljam Mary Pickford, ki se s svojim ženinom, Tomom vozi skozi Wernersville Moore, v svojem rdečem studz Roadsterju.

Hiša sončnega zahoda

G. Francis Grosch, ki je upravljal letovišče v okrožju Schuylkill, je zgradil “Mt. Sunset House ” leta 1876. Letovišče je namestilo 200 gostov. Toda gospod Grosch, ki je bil po poklicu kamnosek, je imel raje svojo trgovino kot delovanje poletnega letovišča. Tako je bilo po nekaj letih vodenje prepuščeno njegovemu zetu, dr. Donaldu Moyerju, lokalnemu zdravniku. Po njegovi smrti v 20.

Moyer in g. Gaul sta bila pod vodstvom dr. Moyerja in g. Gaulja znana po pogledu na sončne zahode in tudi po nedeljskih večerjah z racami. Danes je letovišče znano kot “Villa Maria ” in se uporablja kot umik in bolnišnica za ostarele katoliške sestre.

Belle Alto (kar pomeni čudovita višina) na vrhu Južne gore odpre čudovit razgled na Libanonsko dolino in mesto Reading. To letovišče, zgrajeno iz kamna s širokimi verandami na treh straneh, je bilo priljubljeno mesto za garnituro stolov “. ” Tam je bilo nameščenih od 60 do 70 gostov. Leta 1894 je letovišče kupil gospod E. Yenny, vendar njegovo delovanje ni bilo zelo uspešno. Leta 1898 je bil prostor prodan gospodu Samuelu B. Keppelu. Ko sem obiskal gospo William Delp iz Wernersvillea, hčerko gospoda Keppela, sem v dnevni sobi opazil veliko sliko Bena Atistriana (bralca). Gospa Delp me je obvestila, da je bila slika dana njenemu očetu v plačilo za umetnikovo tablo in sobo. Njegovo ime se je večkrat pojavilo v registru gostov.

G. J. Howell Cummings, predsednik tovarne Stetson Hat, je letovišče kupil leta 1905 in ga uporabil kot poletni dom. G. Cummings je umrl leta 1927, družina gospoda Jamesa Siska iz Readinga pa je nepremičnino od posestva kupila leta 1939.

Bynden Wood

Zapisi o stavbi, ki jo zdaj poznamo kot Bynden Wood, so nejasni. Morda bo kakšen podjetni študent krajevne zgodovine lahko podrobno našel nekaj trdnih odgovorov. Enako lahko trdimo tudi o drugih planinskih domovih, ki niso bili predvsem zdravilišča. Med temi so bili Pomeroy ’s, Highland House (zdaj znan kot Chit-Chat), Hillside, Park Mansion (kasneje Indiandale) in druga letovišča na območju WernersvilleVinemont.

Bynden Wood je leta 1869 prvotno zgradil John B. Stetson, ustanovitelj svetovno znanega podjetja za izdelavo klobukov. Zgradil ga je kot poletno hišo. Struktura, ki jo je poimenoval Bynden Wood, je spregledala območja v okrožjih Berks in Lancaster. Leta 1888 je nepremičnino kupil John Tolbert iz Philadelphije. G. Tolbert ga je uporabljal kot poletni dom do svoje smrti leta 1896. Naslednji dve leti sta ga gospod in gospa William H. Luden iz Readinga uporabljala kot poletno rezidenco. Leta 1898 so nepremičnino preuredili v poletno letovišče in so jo upravljali dediči Tolbert.

Približno na prelomu stoletja je posestvo Bynden Wood kupila zdravnica Octavia Krum, ki je upravljala sanatorij do svoje smrti. Naslednja lastnica je bila gospodična Mary Morton, hči Levija P. Mortona. V času njenega lastništva je bila stavba uporabljena kot zasebna poletna hiša. Od leta 1932 do 1947 je spet postalo letovišče. Leta 1947 je fundacija Wyomissing kupila nepremičnino in jo predstavila centralni Y.M.C.A. v Branje. Trenutno se uporablja kot kulturno središče.

Južna gorska letovišča so v času svojega razcveta zagotovila zaposlitev mnogim ljudem v zahodnem Berksu. Njihov upad je sčasoma sovpadel s hitrim razvojem tekstilne industrije na območjih zahodno od Readinga. In večina tistih zaposlenih, ki so bili razseljeni z zaprtjem sanatorijev, so našli pripravljeno zaposlitev drugje.

Vzpon, upad in opustitev zdravilišč ob Južni gori je zgodovina. Še danes so vidni ostanki njihovega dneva slave in listnate poti, hladni izviri in veličastni razgledi.

Ta članek je bil prvotno objavljen v izdaji The Historical Review of Berks County spomladi 1962.


Pohodniki v uničenem mestu

Življenje renesančnega starinca še zdaleč ni bilo preprosto. Aprila 1436, ko je Cyriac iz Ancone prišel v Atene, ga je navdušil prvi pogled na Partenon, & lsquomarvellous marmorni tempelj boginje Pallas, božansko delo Phidias & rsquo. Prešteval je njene stolpce, občudoval njegove frizure in komentiral umetnost, s katero je Phidias predstavljal bitko pri Kentavrih in Lapitih. Zgradbo je celo narisal na kraju samem. Ohranjena je le poštena kopija njegove skice. Izpušča pomembne podrobnosti, vendar oddaja močan vtis, ki ga je stavba naredila nanj. Cyriac je v duhu odnesel v antični svet in je risal le starinske sestavine stavbe. Ignoriral je zvonik in druge dodatke, ki so zapisali njegovo spreobrnjenje v krščansko cerkev. Ko je leta 1444 ponovno obiskal Atene, je postal prvi latinski pisatelj v stoletjih, ki je Akropolo imenoval z njenim pravim imenom. V dobrih dneh se je zdelo, da je živi starodavni svet skoraj dosegljiv.

Leta 1447, ko je Ciriak obiskal Sparto, je ugotovil, da je & lsquoancient gymnasium & hellip v veliki meri padel in potegnil zob časa in leno zanemarjanje kasnejših prebivalcev & rsquo. Čeprav je rad prepisoval nekaj zanimivih napisov in iskal njihove zelo natančne grške pisave & rsquo, ga je večina tega, kar je videl, potlačila. Plemenita mesta starih so ležala v ruševinah. In če je bilo tragično, da so templji in njihovi kipi padli, je njihovo stanje razkrilo še nekaj hujšega: človeški rod je izgubil starodavno krepost. Razveselilo ga je le srečanje s spartansko mladino. Moški je bil znan po tem, da je med lovom enkrat skočil na divjega prašiča, preden ga je ubil & lsquoby čista sila & rsquo. Ko sta prišla do reke, je Cirika odnesel čez in ga varno odložil na drugo stran. Očitno špartanska vrlina še ni bila mrtva.

V zgodbah o duhovih M.R. Jamesa so starinci bolj suhi kot prah: potreben je napad stoletnega goula, da bi izbruhnili na mestu blagega tutorjenja. V resnici so bila hlapna bitja. Obisk katerega koli starodavnega najdišča, zlasti Rima in ndash -a, morda največje množice starodavnih ruševin na enem mestu kjer koli na svetu & ndash, bi lahko napolnil starinca z užitkom ali obupom ali oboje hkrati. Obup ni bil le odziv na zgodovinsko degradacijo, ampak na izgube v sedanjosti. V srednjih desetletjih 15. stoletja, ko so Poggio Bracciolini, Leon Battista Alberti in drugi začrtali regijo Rima in identificirali njene zgradbe, so papeški tajniki skrbno evidentirali plačila za odstranitev sedre iz Koloseja & rsquo. Leta 1462 je humanist papež Pij II izdal bulo, ki prepoveduje odstranjevanje ruševin in kurjenje starodavnega marmorja za apno. Njegovemu zgledu so sledili drugi papeži. Kot je pred časom pokazal David Karmon, se je gibanje za ohranitev starodavnih najdišč v njihovem trenutnem stanju rodilo v istih letih, ko so bili starinarji zaskrbljeni, da Rim porablja svojo lastno snov za oživitev.

Susan Stewart & rsquos Lekcija ruševin pripoveduje zgodbo o teh starincih in o tem, kar so se naučili iz ruševin, ki so jih obsedele. Njihova občutljivost, kot kaže, je bila že sama po sebi starodavna. V avgustovski dobi, ko je Rim postal marmorno mesto, so se pesniki z žalostjo ozrli na izgubljeno preprostost prejšnjih časov in z optimizmom naprej v prihodnost, ko bi stoletja vetra in dežja odpravila velike kamnite piramide in bronaste napise & ndash a ne, so se hvalili s svojimi verzi. Niso bili ne prvi ne zadnji, ki so ruševine preoblikovali kot pesniško temo. Skoraj dva tisoč let pred njimi je egipčanski uradnik Sarenput I opisal propadlo svetišče: & lsquoIzginilo je, njegove oblike so bile nejasne celo očividcu & hellip. Angleška pesem, znana kot Geneza A, je občudovala briljantnost Rimljanov, ki so ustvarili čudeže Aquae Sulis (Bath): & lsquo Razdražljiv um, in človek duhovitosti,/zvit v prstanih, pogumno povezal steno/z železom, čudež « Avtor Geneze A je domnevno zapustil ruševine, ki jih je občudoval, v njihovem zlomljenem stanju. Pisatelji so na ruševine gledali vse vrste čustev, od nostalgije do Schadenfreude in od usmiljenja do užitka.

Podrli so tudi padle templje in očarljive jame z namišljenimi prebivalci, predvsem ženskami, iz Polije, nedosegljivega predmeta ljubezni velikega antičnega romana, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, do spečih nimf, katerih kipi so krasili renesančne vrtove. Številni starinarji so imeli naklonjenost k romantično umrlim dekletom, na primer mlada rimska plemkinja, ki so jo leta 1485 našli v sarkofagu na Appijevi poti. Njeno telo so pripeljali na Kapitolinski hrib, kamor je pritegnilo množice gledalcev, tudi umetnike, ki so želeli snemati njena lepota in alkimist, ki je analiziral gel za balzamiranje, ki jo je ohranil nedotaknjeno. Po nekaj dneh je bil papež morda nezadovoljen zaradi podobnosti med poklonitvijo njenemu telesu in tem podeljenim svetnikom, da so truplo odpeljali in pokopali. Pa vendar so pesniki in umetniki, kot kaže Stewart, še naprej povezovali ruševine s čudežno popolnimi mladimi ženskami, ki niso paradoksalno brez življenja in škode. Propadajoči templji so se redno pojavljali v bližini ene device, zlasti & ndash Mary & ndash na slikah rojstva: & lsquoPaganske ruševine stojijo kot neme, ponižane priče krščanskih dosežkov. & Rsquo

Rim je bil prestolnica dežele starinarjev in rsquoja, kar zgodovinarji zdaj nerodno imenujejo zgodnje moderno obdobje, od 15. do 18. stoletja, je bil njegov razcvet. Obiskovalci Rima v srednjem veku so se že čudili mestnim ostankom, medtem ko so jim tako kot zdaj pomagali vodniki, ki so mešali neverjetno fikcijo z inteligentnimi komentarji. Priljubljeni Mirabilia Urbis Romae je bilo na vsaki strani z napakami. Jasno pa je bilo jasno, da je Rim mesto ruševin. Pravilno pozoren obiskovalec je še vedno lahko videl sledi izgubljenih starodavnih zakladov: lepoto strehe Pantheon & rsquos, ki je bila nekoč & lsquoll pokrita s ploščicami iz pozlačene medenine, tako da se je od daleč zdelo, da je gora zlata & hellip še vedno delno razvidno & rsquo. Renesančna nostalgija za izgubljenim sijajem cesarskega Rima ni bila povsem nova.

Tudi renesančna prizadevanja za oživitev starodavnega mesta niso bila. Cola di Rienzo, ki se je sredi 14. stoletja lotil obnove Rimske republike, je dešifriral besede, vpisane na bronasti plošči v Lateranski baziliki. To je bil tako imenovani lex de imperio Vespasiani, ki je izjavil in potrdil pooblastila cesarja iz prvega stoletja, ki je Rimu podaril javne pisoarje (moji prijatelji, ki se spominjajo navdušenja nad pikanjem kot fantje v tradicionalni kovini vespasiani še vedno objokujejo njihovo izginotje). Cola je menil, da ta dokument dokazuje, da je rimsko ljudstvo cesarjem podelilo oblast. Njegova praktična prizadevanja so se končala z neuspehom in smrtjo. Toda njegovo prepričanje, da bi stari Rim lahko zagotovil politične modele in simbole, se je vedno znova prevzelo, vse do Mussolinijevega rsquosa, ki je mesto preuredil v 20. stoletju.

Iz tako dolgoletnih praks in prepričanj je zraslo antikvarstvo. Toda v 15. stoletju je preučevanje starodavne preteklosti dobilo dve novi, povezani obliki. Oba sta bila utelešena v besedilih in slikah, oba pa sta za Stewarta pomembna. Po eni strani so znanstveniki in umetniki prišli videti ruševine Rima in zgodovine kot zgodovinski vir. Emmanuel Chrysoloras, dostojanstven in zgovoren bizantinski učenjak iz Carigrada (Novi Rim), je konec 14. stoletja poučeval grščino v Firencah. Ko je bil v starem Rimu, je tekel od hriba do hriba, da bi si ogledal mestne akvadukte in portike, kopeli in gledališča. V primerjavi obeh mest je opisal zgodovinsko vrednost slavolokov in cesarskih stebrov Rima. Njihovi frizi so upodabljali starodavni Rim in njegove sovražnike v živahnih, izčrpnih podrobnostih: podobe & rsquo so & lsquoreje predstavljale kot verske praznike in žrtvovanja, bitke na morju in kopnem, orožje in vojne stroje. Herodot in drugi zgodovinarji menijo, da so naredili nekaj zelo koristnega, je priznal Chrysoloras in skrbno uokvirila najmanjšo pohvalo, ki jo je našel. Toda moč in vzdržljivost starodavne umetnosti sta antikvarju omogočila, da je videl preteklost pred seboj. Starine & lsquogrant nam očividci znanje o vsem, kar se je zgodilo, kot da bi bilo prisotno & rsquo.

Zgodovina je bila pomembna v 15. in 16. stoletju: knezom je ponujala navodila, ki so jih potrebovali za bojevanje v bitkah, vladanje državam in opravljanje diplomatskih misij. Veliki možje & ndash Leonardo Bruni, bogati kancler Firenc Pij II., Duhoviti papež humanist Lorenzo Valla, briljantni filolog & ndash so pisali zgodovine. Starinarji pa bi lahko trdili, da so oblikovali posebno obliko discipline. Večina starodavnih zgodovinarjev in večina njihovih renesančnih posnemovalcev je menila, da je zgodovina najbolj poglobljena in razkriva, ko je bila napisana iz izkušenj očividcev ali pričevanj očividcev. Nenadoma so se starinarji spraševali, da bi lahko bili sami priča zgodovini Rima na njegovem vrhu.

Toda mnogi starinarji, kot kaže Stewart, so tudi na zelo drugačen način iskali zgodovino v ruševinah in ta drugi način spoznanja jo najbolj zadeva. Njihove vrste so bile tako umetniki kot učenjaki, nekateri učenjaki pa so bili na svoj način umetniki: Poggio je bil glavni pisec, Alberti pa pionirski arhitekt. Ti možje so znali prebrati zgradbe, sestavne dele po komponento, da bi izsledili estetska načela, ki so vodila njihove ustvarjalce. Navdušili so jih tudi načini spreminjanja struktur in umetnin skozi čas. Seveda so obžalovali, da so sodobni Rimljani Kolosej spremenili v kamnolom. Vedeli pa so, da za to uničenje niso odgovorni samo pohlepni graditelji in nevedni delavci. Vsaka stena, akvadukt, bazilika ali gledališče je bila od svojega nastanka vključena v neskončen, brutalen boj proti zobu časa. To je bilo utelešeno v vremenu, ki je odneslo kamen in povzročilo propad zidov, v drobtinah in drevesih, ki so rasla nad velikimi strukturami, kot je piramida v Cestiju, in zemlji, ki se je nabrala do osnovne oblike mesta, ni bilo mogoče prepoznati. Ti boji so jih zgrozili in obsedeli.

Izkušen starinar je moral biti sposoben izslediti dolge procese naravnega in človeškega nasilja, ki so strukture spremenile v ruševine. Ko je Poggio raziskal stene starega Rima, je našel v njih vgrajene hiše in okna, izrezana skozi njih. Na mestih, kjer sta se zrušila, je videl, da so sestavljeni, delno iz drobcev marmorja, deloma iz opeke, tako lepo polirane, da spominjajo na vaze. V drugih krajih so bili tako krhki in pokvarjeni, da so bili pripravljeni pasti, ne da bi se jih dotaknili. Ugotovil je, da je obstajal en sam način gradnje, vendar je na različnih mestih različen, tako da je jasno, da zidov ni naredil naenkrat ali isti arhitekt & rsquo.

S svojimi ugotovitvami je sestavil novo zgodovino in tisto, v kateri očitno trdne stene in očitno starodavne bazilike niso bile vedno posnetki v kamnu, ampak sestavljeni iz materialov iz zelo različnih obdobij. Do začetka 16. stoletja so lahko starinarji zgodbo o Rimu povedali v novem ključu. Sledili so postopni degeneraciji okusa in spretnosti, ki je vplivala na kiparstvo pred arhitekturo. Raphael in Castiglione, ki sta pregledala Konstantinov lok, sta razlikovala njegovo sestavo, za katero sta ugotovila, da je "lepa in dobro izvedena", od okraskov, ki so bili & lsquoappalling, brez veščine ali dobrega oblikovanja & rsquo & ndash, razen spolije iz prejšnjih, boljših obdobij. Starinarji so bili kritični, celo obsojajoči in njihova močna estetska prepričanja so ustvarila prve kulturne zgodovine. Vztrajnost jim je postopoma dala svoj pomen. Strokovnjaki so začeli dojemati tisto, kar bi Alois Riegl pozneje imenoval & lsquouse value & rsquo uničenih zgradb: vrednost & lsquoeownded by continue in time & rsquo, ki lahko tudi najbolj pretrganim, nerazumljivim uniči moč, da premakne gledalce. Pozorniki in arhitekti, kot je pokazal Karmon, so črpali moralo in začeli poskušati ohraniti in ne nadomestiti propadajočih struktur.

V 16. stoletju so slike postale standardni način beleženja let škode. Dve vrsti antikvarne grafike zanimata zlasti Stewarta in tvorita jedro njene knjige in dela umetnikov iz 16. stoletja, ki so prvič naredili posebnost pri snemanju rimskih ruševin, in tistih Giovannija Battiste Piranesija dve stoletji pozneje. Piranesi je imel s temi prejšnjimi umetniki veliko skupnega: obsedeno zanimanje za najmanjše podrobnosti rimskih ruševin, vse do rastlin, ki so med njimi zrasle v obvladovanju tehnik (jedkanja in graviranja), ki so od njihovih izvajalcev zahtevali, da napadajo kovinske plošče in jih poškodujejo, tako kot je sam čas naredil svojim podložnikom in navdušenje nad sodobnimi prebivalci starodavnih ruševin & ndash figure, skoraj vedno v sodobni obleki, ki so gledalce vabili k razmišljanju o prizorih, jim dali občutek za obseg, včasih pa tudi veliko več. Vendar so se njihove prakse in njihov vpliv močno razlikovali.

V 16. stoletju so umetniki, kot sta & Eacutetienne Dup & eacuterac, sistematično beležili ruševine Rima in risb v risbah in grafikah. Stewart opisuje njihove tiskarne, ki so bile združene v bližini trga Piazza Navona. Mojstri in kalfe so po vrsti slik pokrivali glavna rimska mesta. Pri svojem delu & lsquo tisto, kar bi lahko bilo ozadje & ndash uničenih arhitekturnih oblik & ndash, postaja tako ospredje kot predmet pozornosti likov na prizorišču. & Rsquo Gledalci so se naučili videti & lquo; zgodovino, ki stoji okoli njih & rsquo & ndash, kompleksno zgodovino, ki se je gibala več kot Ena smer. Dup & eacuterac in njegovi tekmeci so med prikazovanjem nastanka Tempietta in nove bazilike svetega Petra & rsquosa jasno povedali, kako blizu je gradnja lahko podobna uničenju.

& lsquo Osmi pogled na Kolosej & rsquo Hieronymus Cock (1550)

Toda grafični umetniki iz 16. stoletja, ki najbolj navdušujejo Stewarta, so tisti, ki so prišli iz nizkih držav, na primer Maarten van Heemskerck in Hieronymus Cock. Van Heemskerck learned the dialectics of construction and demolition in Trastevere and on the Forum. He drew the changing cityscape that he saw, as old buildings vanished and half-finished new ones loomed, with drama and precision. Cock, by contrast, may not have visited Rome, though the title of his first series of Roman prints claimed that they rested on first-hand observation. What matters most, for Stewart, are the preoccupations they shared. Both were fascinated by violence itself, she argues, as well as by its effects on buildings, and this interest gave Cock&rsquos works in particular a distinctive and influential texture. His first set of Roman views came with a dedication to his patron, Cardinal de Granvelle. Written by the humanist Cornelius Grapheus, it posed a frightening question: if the rage of barbarians and the abyss of time had ruined Rome, how could one hope that any kingdom would survive? In keeping with this sentiment, Cock portrayed Rome&rsquos ruins not as neatly labelled model works of classical architecture, as some of his rivals did, but in &lsquofrail, vegetation-damaged, almost drooping images&rsquo. Every arch was broken, every stone ended in a jagged line from which plants sprouted. In Cock&rsquos work, as in others, small figures held lively discussions about the ruins. Sometimes, however, they menaced one another with robbery or rape. He turned a ruined arch under the Colosseum, a fornix in Latin, into a scene of fornication (and of force).

Stewart scents allegory here. The owner of such a drawing or print might tease out connections to events in Cock&rsquos own world that had focused his attention on force and destruction &ndash an &lsquoallusion&rsquo, for example, &lsquoto the brutality of the Sack of Rome or the Spanish occupation of the Netherlands&rsquo. The latter suggestion, at least, seems unlikely: Cock drew the Colosseum in 1550, while the Spanish didn&rsquot occupy the Low Countries until 1556. But Stewart&rsquos perceptive readings of Cock&rsquos prints make clear how powerfully force preoccupied him. In later decades, after Spanish armies and local iconoclasts and rebels had spread terrifying scenes of destruction across the Netherlands, his Roman prints helped inspire Galle, Coornhert and others to create their own, more visibly allegorical suites of images of biblical history. They emphasised, as he had, &lsquothe decay of materials and the continuity of human action&rsquo, which they used to teach theological and moral lessons. Ruin landscapes in the north demanded more than reading from their viewers. They called for a hermeneutical approach that could detect the fall and redemption of humanity in the layers revealed by the collapse of a building. Illustrating Luther&rsquos Bible, Cranach had portrayed the fall of Babylon as the fall of Rome, with flames about to consume the Mausoleum of Hadrian. In the mid-century world, divided by religious war, antiquarian images of Rome&rsquos ruins formed part of the foundation for a profound new visual theology.

Piranesi was no theologian. But Stewart&rsquos treatment of his work reveals both his debt to the accomplishments of his predecessors and the vast and distinctive energy of his imagination. Ruins preoccupied him from the start, and from the start he found new ways to represent them. On the title page of his first book, the title itself appears as a fallen inscription, lying aslant the picture plane, overshadowed by an obelisk and surrounded, even overwhelmed, by other ruins and vegetation. The words furthest from the viewer are hard to pick out. But the author&rsquos name is clear, and that of his dedicatee even clearer. Inspired in part by the greatest scenic artists of his time, the Galli Bibiena family, Piranesi staged ruins with a theatrical flair that none of his predecessors could have matched. He demonstrated that it was not easy to see them as they were.

&lsquoAppian Way&rsquo (1756) by Piranesi

He also sought a high degree of precision, which he attained in various ways. He clambered up wooden scaffolds and spelunked in cryptoporticuses in order to measure buildings exactly. He devised methods for representing the diverse textures of brick, travertine and flint, and copied inscriptions with scrupulous care. At the same time, his capacious imagination was always at work, opening up the seemingly inhuman spaces of his Prisons. The skulls and sarcophagi, sphinx and herm that litter his four early grotesque plates suggest allegory: was he alluding, as Maurizio Calvesi argued long ago, to the four ages into which Giambattista Vico had divided historical time, using a visual form of cultural history to illustrate a verbal one? A 1756 image of the Appian Way jumbles busts and obelisks, the statue of the she-wolf that nourished Romulus and Remus, and tombs for Piranesi himself and other living antiquaries into a single wild mélange, in which everything, as Stewart shows, is antique although &lsquonothing is factual.&rsquo This was antiquarianism as late baroque fantasy. Yet Piranesi, as Heather Hyde Minor has shown, compiled massive, splendid illustrated books, in which he engaged in detail with the traditions of antiquarian scholarship.

Piranesi put all these skills at the service of a historical thesis: the Etruscan origins of Roman culture, which he traced through minute study of the ancient stone plan of the city, the fragmentary Forma Urbis Romae, and wild imaginative leaps. But he also used them to show, with startling expressiveness, what Rome&rsquos remains actually looked like. He made the ancient buildings reveal themselves as seen from the worm&rsquos eye view of a walker in the ruined city, and &ndash brilliantly gifted at portraying clouds and smoke &ndash he evoked the experience of seeing Rome&rsquos ruins, and its trees, against a night sky. He populated the ruins not with disputatious antiquarians or dangerous characters but with the beggars and other marginal people who actually lived in them. When visitors made their Italian journeys in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, they saw Rome&rsquos ruins through Piranesi&rsquos eyes. No one did more to bring out the beauty of the unfinished and the broken, which would become core parts of a new literature and art.

T he Ruins Lesson makes one point above all: there was no single dominant way of observing ancient ruins and portraying what remained. Jessica Maier&rsquos The Eternal City: A History of Rome in Maps provides a rich complementary account. V Civilisation and Its Discontents, Freud, antiquarian of the mind and connoisseur of archaeology, argued that it would be impossible to trace the history of Rome&rsquos development on a single map. The temples and buildings of Republican Rome were now only ruins, and not &lsquoruins of themselves but of later restorations&rsquo. These in turn were &lsquodovetailed into the jumble of a great metropolis which has grown up in the last few centuries since the Renaissance&rsquo. The church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva occupied the ground once devoted to the Temple of Minerva the Pantheon of Hadrian filled the space where the original one built by Agrippa once stood. The task of depicting them, or even placing them on a map, was hopeless: &lsquoThe same space cannot have two different contents.&rsquo

Happily, the scholars and artists whose works Maier surveys hadn&rsquot read their Freud. For centuries, as she shows, mapmakers and miniaturists, antiquarians and cartographers set out to do exactly what he thought impossible: to represent at least in part not only the city of Rome, but some of the ways in which it had changed over time. Their approaches were as varied as their skills. Some, looking down at Rome from the hills of Lazio, saw the medieval city of towers, like a stone forest others, as they scanned the city, spotted ancient temples and sculptures or later churches and monasteries and ignored the spaces between them. As popes and other patrons drove long, straight streets through the alleys and arcades that had made old neighbourhoods impassable, as the city itself revived from late medieval depopulation and the Sack of 1527, Rome&rsquos urban form became increasingly coherent and legible.

Leonardo Bufalini in the mid-16th century and Antonio Tempesta fifty years later produced bird&rsquos-eye views of a city crammed with modern palaces and markets as well as ancient monuments. Inspired in part by Bufalini, Bartolomeo Marliani and Pirro Ligorio recreated the ancient city. Marliani, a model of epistemic and artistic modesty, worked up a precise but skeletal recreation of late imperial Rome, which he marked off by topographical features and the ground plans of major buildings. Ligorio crafted something completely different: a magnificently busy array of circuses, temples and housing that packed the Aurelian walls. Even the anonymous buildings that filled otherwise empty areas were picked out in plausible and exciting architectural detail. &lsquoThrough sheer abundance,&rsquo Maier writes, &lsquohe also gives a sense of the city as a living, breathing space.&rsquo As did Piranesi in his plan of the Campus Martius &ndash a busy, crowded map &lsquoreplete with figments of his brilliant imagination&rsquo, which took off from the surviving fragments of the ancient marble city plan, and which he represented as if inscribed on a massive but partly broken stone slab. Some scholars, such as the Dutch geographer Paulus Merula, even found ingenious ways to map change over time. Omitting most buildings from the plan he drew up in the 1590s, he depicted the walls of the original, tiny city, Roma Quadrata, the Servian Wall of the fourth century bce and the late antique Aurelian Wall as if they had all coexisted. By juxtaposing them, he showed the city&rsquos growth over time in a simple, vivid way. Maier&rsquos protagonists had little interest in &lsquouse value&rsquo. Their Rome was defiantly imperial: grand, lively and largely untouched by time. Yet it too was an imagined beauty, painstakingly reconstructed.


Ranch of the Friends: The Extraordinary Evolution of the L.A. County Poor Farm

I have officially been to one of the most fascinating places in Los Angeles County. No, it is not the new branch of Soho House about to open in DTLA, or that private club in the Staples Center everyone is always talking about. In fact, this place is deserted except for clutters of cats and was never the stomping ground of anyone rich or famous (unless they were there for a photo opportunity). But the L.A. County Poor Farm, later known as Rancho Los Amigos, was an exclusive club of sorts. It was a place of refuge for the destitute, the infirm, the addicted, and the elderly. It was a revolutionary concept when it opened in 1888, but since the late 1980s it has been left to become a ghost town. A ghost town whose lush overgrown grounds whisper of the comfort that many lost souls once found beneath its shaded trees.

The old Poor Farm campus is in Downey, right off the Imperial Highway. It is on the south side of the highway, while its grandchild, the still very active Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center, straddles the north side. After some confusion, my friend and I located the abandoned complex, which appears for all the world like a lovely college campus that was quickly deserted due to some sudden disaster. We parked in front of the old administration building, alone except for two construction workers lying in the grass, eating their lunch in front of a condemned cottage. We explored the campus and found an abandoned church, a large Craftsman mansion (once the superintendent's home) with boarded up windows, a vine covered Spanish-style complex (once the women's ward), an empty auditorium, a giant laundry building, row upon row of patient housing that form streets like a Wild West movie set, a giant graffiti covered water tank, a bus stop, occupational therapy buildings, and wide green fields and concrete yards covered in trespassers' recent debris -- including an oddly ironic bottle of non-alcoholic O'Doul's.

Then there were the cats -- everywhere there were cats. On the boarded up doors, there were signs reading DO NOT FEED THE CATS, but we saw many multicolored cat dishes, proving this rule is not strictly enforced. Occasionally a jogger or a Rehab Center employee on a lunch break would pass by us, and the numerous broken windows and overturned office chairs led us to believe that there were probably some unfortunate souls sleeping the day away in the condemned buildings. The grounds were beautiful and fragrant and the leaves rustled a soothing rhythm. I say this not to whitewash the place, but rather to say that walking along the forgotten streets we did not feel like we were in the midst of lingering, unbearable suffering or institutional agony. We thought of all the homeless people trapped in the gritty hell of downtown L.A., and wished that somehow this peaceful place could become a refuge once again.

As Remarkable as a Waltz in the Midst of a Fast Day

Before it even officially became part of the United States in 1850, California had a large-scale humanitarian crisis brewing. Thousands of single men had rushed to the state in search of gold in 1848, only to find nothing but back-breaking labor and meager incomes. As these kinless men aged, they became destitute -- unable to work because of health problems or lack of education. The 1870s brought a flood of already ill people, lured to California by books like "California for Health, Pleasure and Residence," which promised an atmosphere "so pure" that it could cure almost any infirmity. These people, often from middle or lower class backgrounds, usually found themselves still ill, without networks of family and friends to support them. By the boom time 1880s, the L.A. County Hospital (opened in 1858) was overrun with such patients, along with more recent indigent arrivals via the newly constructed Santa Fe Railroad.

In 1887, the L.A. County Board of Supervisors decided to build a new institution that would house homeless, able-bodied "inmates" in a bucolic rural setting. That August, the county purchased 124.4 acres of farmland in unincorporated L.A. County, near the small town of Downey. The land was cleared and roadways were built. Shading trees were planted along with roses and other fragrant flowers. The original campus (situated approximately where the auditorium is today) featured three main buildings. An all-purpose Victorian style wooden building housed the kitchen, a reading room, trunk room, offices, and bedrooms for employees. Flanking this building were identical men's and women's wards, made of mesa brick, with long porches where inmates could "enjoy the evening breeze, smoke a clay pipe (supplied by the Farm), or take an afternoon nap in a rocking chair." 2 (Centennial, pg. 26) A working farm was also cultivated, to supply the inmates both at the farm and County Hospital with food. The excess was sold at market to defray the institution's cost.

The first inmates were moved to the farm in December 1888. There were already around ninety men and women living at the farm in March 1888 when Dr. Edwin L. Burdick, a physician with farming experience, was hired as superintendent. By 1892, the L.A. Times reported:

Over the next 12 years, under Dr. Burdick's leadership, the County Poor Farm grew into one of L.A.'s most lauded projects. As more buildings were built, it became a catchall institution, with wards for patients afflicted with mental illness, asthma, alcoholism, syphilis and physical disabilities. Most residents were elderly, and some were expected to stay only until they were well enough to work again. These men and women often performed light duties around the farm and were paid a small sum to take charge of the chickens or tend to sicker inmates. Then there were the inmates Dr. Burdick simply diagnosed with "old age," like a 100-year-old man from Britain who had fought in the battle of Waterloo. 4 Though most of the inmates had been poor laborers, there were exceptions like William Willmore, a once prosperous developer of what would become Long Beach, and James Eastman, a highly respected lawyer whose life had been ruined by alcoholism. While Willmore's friends eventually rescued him, no one came to Eastman's aid, and he was buried in the farm's (now lost) cemetery.

The farm became a popular place for the more fortunate to visit. Ladies' charity groups, the Chamber of Commerce, and health advocates from all over the country visited the farm to get ideas, hear lectures, and enjoy the farm's "novel" setting. A journalist visiting in 1902 described it thusly:

Though the story paints a rosy picture, there were darker tales as well. There were occasional reports of inmate mistreatment. There were also stories of despondent residents like George Deacin, who drowned himself in a nearby river, and Bud Lewis, the farm's bread cutter, who jumped out of a window during a heated discussion. Concerns grew louder after Burdick retired. The farm suffered a series of lackluster superintendents. In 1911, a grand jury investigation resulted in mandated sweeping changes. These included fair distribution of food, clean and well lit wards, and "humane and kindly treatment" of inmates, with the promise that "any case of unnecessary force of violence on the part of employees is punished by instant dismissal." 6 Despite mismanagement, the 400-acre working farm (tended mostly by civilian labor) prospered, the orange crop alone bringing in $13,000 in 1909. This led one scribe to joke, "'Down to the County Poor Farm' is all a mistake, it should be 'Down to the County Rich Farm!'" 7

A Ranch, a Hospital and a Home

In 1915, a new superintendent arrived who would transform the farm into a world class rehabilitation hospital and tight knit "small town," made up of thousands of patients, employees and their families. William Ruddy Harriman was only 26 years old when he and his wife, Elinor, moved into the large house reserved for the superintendent. A brilliant and kind man, Harriman had the personal touch that makes a born leader -- he memorized the name of every employee and patient ( he preferred the term patient to inmate) and told all he met to "Just call me Bill." 10 He was also firm in his beliefs about how the institution should be run, writing, "Cleanliness, sobriety and respect for the rights of the others are encouraged, and where necessary, enforced." 11 Hoping to erase the stigma of being a "poor farm," Harriman had the farm's name changed to Hondo (for the Rio Hondo, which ran through the property) in 1918. The area encompassing the County farm at Hondo was officially a town with its own post office it would not be absorbed into Downey until the 1950s.

Over the first decade and a half of Harriman's reign numerous improvements were made to the farm. A new administration building, auditorium, infirmary buildings, medical offices, men's and women's psychopathic wards, additional housing for staff and patients, and bathhouses were built. Relationships with charitable groups were encouraged, early physical and occupational therapy was introduced, and the patient's social life was expanded with frequent motion picture shows, musical events, and arts and crafts. The farm itself continued to flourish, winning prizes for its milking cows and valuable Belgian and Percheron draft horses. By 1929, the average number of patients staying on the farm was around 1,900. 12 Increasing numbers of bedridden patients were being brought over from the county hospital. Able-bodied patients could participate in furniture making, work at the printing press, or play sports. Employees also lived at the farm and formed baseball teams, basketball teams, musical groups, and social clubs.

The Depression slammed into the county farm at Hondo. As funding dried up, the patient population exploded, necessitating the construction of a tent city that would be used for decades. In 1932, as the farm increasingly turned towards rehabilitation and medicine, the farm's name was changed to Ranchos Los Amigos -- "ranch of the friends." By 1934, Rancho Los Amigos had grown to 540 acres, with around 2,781 patients of all ages, infirmities and socio-economic backgrounds. The average stay around this time was 3 ½ years. Though many patients still came from poor backgrounds, the depression brought a greater number of lawyers, artists, scientists, writers and many lady music teachers onto the campus. An article from the L.A. Times described the variety of patients that year:

The employees and patients generally lived in harmony. The power house whistle blew six times a day to signal mealtimes and bedtimes, and soothing concerts were often played over the Ranchos' campus-wide speaker system. Harriman's son, Bill Jr., and other children who grew up at the Rancho remembered a unique and oddly magical childhood, replete with a miniature zoo, tended by patients, and a small golf course. Bill Jr. credited his lifelong love of music (he became a jazz drummer) to a ragtag band of patients who would play on the streets of the campus every day. "It was very loosely organized and nobody bothered to read any music," he remembered. They would sing their way through folk and early American songs with ukuleles, guitars, violins and mouth harps. It was really the first live music I ever heard." 14

Of course, the ranch was a place full of very sick people with very real problems. Alcoholism was rampant. In 1935, many patients became ill and violent after drinking a bootleg shellac alcohol they had bought from a corrupt druggist in downtown Downey. There were sad stories like that of Eulalia Herbert, an elderly widow who had sewed or stuffed over $2,300 in relief money into her dress. Upon her arrival to the ranch, shocked nurses had to peel the money off her body when they went to give her a bath. More and more chronically ill children were also moved to the Rancho at this time.

With the passage of the Social Security Act of 1938 and the coming of World War II, many of the Rancho's elderly and able bodied patients moved to nursing homes or found outside work in the aviation industry and left the ranch. Some who considered the ranch home chose to stay on as paying patients. Some who could not leave, but who wanted to help in the war effort, formed a company called WARCO, which ran a subsidiary shop of Reeves Rubber Company in the Rancho Crafters building. There were other ways go help the war effort at the Rancho. Many wheelchair bound patients worked for Bendix Aviation and other aircraft companies, sorting through sweepings sent from local factories for usable nuts, bolts and usable metals. 15 Part of the ranch became an Army base called Camp Morrow. In 1944, an emergency hospital was founded, and a group of 32 polio victims was transferred to the Rancho. This was the beginning of the Rancho's polio ward, which would become one of the premier polio treatment and rehabilitation centers in the country.

The late '40s and '50s were a time of massive growth and change, and by 1951 the Rancho was considered a premier hospital, whose primary mission was "providing geriatric, medical and nursing care, as well as care for those suffering from chronic diseases or convalescing from medical or surgical conditions." 16 It also provided necessary "medical, surgical, and ancillary care for the largest concentration of respirators-dependent poliomyelitis patients in history." 17 There were no more prize Holsteins or endless orange groves. One by one, the hallmarks of the poor farm were shut down -- the mental health wards were shuttered, and the prize milking cows were sold. William Harriman retired in 1952, and died only two years later. By the late '50s, the County Poor Farm was a thing of the past, but Rancho Los Amigos Hospital was alive and well.

Over the next six decades the Rancho continued to grow. It became a highly respected county medical center of rehabilitation, research and hope. Its new growth was centered around the new campus on the north side of the Imperial Highway. Though most of the long term infirm and elderly patients died or were transferred to nursing homes or other facilities, a chosen few were allowed to stay. Until 1976, Eddie Higgins, a beloved developmentally handicapped man who had called the ranch home since 1926, could be found making his daily rounds, cheering everyone from doctors to fellow patients. 18

By the late 1980s, most of the buildings on the South Campus were abandoned. Over the years, numerous plans have been floated for the property, including the construction of an environmentally friendly county data center. But still the ghostly buildings of the poor farm campus remain, moldering reminders that charity is not a new concept, even in the Wild, Wild West.


Aberdeen History

RCAHMS has been working with the National Library of Scotland and the ‘Scotsman’ newspaper to tell the stories of the nation’s cities.

From intricate seventeenth century sketches and eighteenth century town plans, to pioneering Victorian photography and modern aerial survey imagery, the material from the RCAHMS National Collection is being used to produce visual timelines of the history of Scotland’s major cities and towns.

You can browse and buy all the imagery featured in the supplements – plus a lot more – in our series of galleries and through our online, searchable database of architecture and archaeology, Canmore.


I may be the last person who remembers Ashopton and Derwent

Bamford beckoned me to sit down, eager to begin her story.

“When Rose Cottage in Ashopton came vacant, my parents moved there, and we lived in the village until 1938.â€

“What do you remember about life in Ashopton?†I asked.

“I remember our cottage was very simple. There was no electricity, just a paraffin lamp in the living room. Candles were used everywhere else. The loo was an earthen closet a long way from the house.â€

I nodded, recalling the accounts I’d read of villagers rehoused by the Water Board in homes with modern bathrooms. It had made the move easier.

Visitors to the Ladybower Reservoir in 2018 could see the ruins of Derwent Church and Derwent Hall (Credit: Anthony Devlin/Getty Images)

“And what about Derwent village, Mabel? Do you remember it?â€

“Oh, yes, I was going to school there, even as the construction of Ladybower was underway. We had to walk one-and-a-half miles to Derwent. Sometimes the shooters and beaters in grouse season gave us a lift. But the rides we liked best were offered by the pipeline workers. They’d lift us inside the big black pipes they were constructing at the site of the reservoir,†she said.

Pokimal sem. I had noticed the large pipes that span Ladybower at Fairholmes, where the visitor centre sits at the head of Ladybower. They were easily big enough to hold a child.

“I remember in the cold weather there was always a fire lit at school,†Bamford continued. We’d bring a big potato with our initials carved into it and Teacher would bake them for us and make us cups of cocoa.â€

Ninety-two-year-old Mabel Bamford still remembers living in the village of Ashopton before it was submerged in the Ladybower Reservoir (Credit: Helen Moat)

Bamford told me more stories: of the policeman who came to her house to berate her for stealing apples and of the excitement in Ashopton when the petrol station owners generated electricity with a windmill-like contraption. And how the Derwent young men walked to the Methodist Church at Ashopton to scrounge for food at their social gatherings, rechristened the “Bachelors’ Tea†as a result.

I left Bamford, feeling privileged to have heard her first-hand stories of the drowned villages. I’d been offered a glimpse into the past firstly with Derwent's reappearance, and again with Bamford.

One year on, the ruins of Derwent village have returned to the murky depths of Ladybower Reservoir. I’m now left wondering: will Derwent village stay hidden for another decade or more? Or with climate change, will its resurrection become a regular occurrence? I will have to wait and see.

Sunken Civilisation is a BBC Travel series that explores mythical underwater worlds that seem too fantastical to exist today but are astonishingly real.

Join more than three million BBC Travel fans by liking us on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter in Instagram.


(left) Side portico of S. Giovanni in Laterano: monument to King Henry IV of France by Nicolas Cordier (right) S. Maria Maggiore - Cappella Paolina: relief celebrating the annexation of Ferrara

Relations between Pope Clement VIII and Henry IV of France became so good that the Pope agreed to annul Henry's marriage with Marguerite of Valois after 27 years. The King soon married Maria de' Medici, niece of Ferdinand I, Grand Duke of Tuscany. The former Huguenot who narrowly escaped being murdered at St. Bartholomew's Day, became a champion of the Church to the point that in 1606 (shortly after the death of the Pope) a bronze statue portraying him as a Roman emperor was placed in S. Giovanni in Laterano the Pope erected a small monument celebrating the Peace of Vervins outside S. Maria Maggiore and made reference to the king in many inscriptions, including the gigantic one which he placed on the fa�ade of Palazzo Senatorio.
Pope Clement VIII did not start any major new buildings, but was busy completing those initiated by Pope Sixtus V. He went ahead with the decoration of S. Pietro where he built Cappella Clementina and he completed Palazzo Apostolico in S. Giovanni in Laterano he renovated the transept and built a gigantic altar and a similarly gigantic organ. Directly or through his nephews the Pope promoted the restoration of several churches: S. Nicol� in Carcere, S. Cesareo, S. Prassede other cardinals took care of S. Maria della Vallicella, S. Susanna and SS. Nereo and Achilleo (in this church Cardinal Cesare Baronio applied the iconographical plan which emphasized the role of the Roman Church in the early centuries of Christianity by portraying the martyrdoms of the first saints).
The Pope built also Collegio Clementino and Palazzo del Monte di Piet�. In 1600 the incorrupt body of St. Cecilia was re-discovered and it was portrayed in a famous statue by Stefano Maderno.

Pope Paul V

The conclave which followed the death of Pope Clement VIII showed the growing importance of France: King Henry IV with the help of the Aldobrandini cardinals was successful in supporting the election of Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici, who had been nuncio in Paris and was a (distant) relative of his second wife. He became Pope Leo XI, but his pontificate was very short: only 26 days. Sic florui the inscription on his funerary monument is a reference indicating that he was in blossom for just a few days.
At the following conclave the cardinals, after eight days of heated debate, elected Cardinal Camillo Borghese who at the time was leading the Inquisition and was not regarded as belonging either to the Spanish or to the French party.
His rigid views on the superior authority of the pope soon led him into a confrontation with the Republic of Venice which clearly showed that the times when an excommunication was able to force an emperor to kiss the pope's slipper to ask forgiveness had gone. The issue at stake was related to the jurisdiction over two priests (actually two noblemen having some ecclesiastical benefits) arrested and charged with several crimes. The Pope claimed through his nuncio that they should be tried in Rome. The Venetian Senate refused and the Pope excommunicated the entire government of Venice and placed an interdict on the city. To his great dismay the clergy (with the exception of the Jesuits and two other orders) sided with the Republic masses, weddings, funerals continued to be celebrated. Eventually in March 1607 Pope Paul V withdrew his censure without being able to force Venice to make concessions: the Jesuits remained banned from Venice for nearly sixty years.


World's Most-Visited Ancient Ruins

Lounging under a striped beach umbrella along the Mediterranean isn&rsquot the main draw for travelers who come through Kusadasi, Turkey. Many are here to explore the ancient ruins of nearby Ephesus, including an amphitheater that still hosts concerts&mdashmuch as it did 2,000 years ago.

&ldquoAncient ruins give us a connection to the past that&rsquos visceral,&rdquo says Mary Jo Arnoldi, chair of the anthropology department at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. &ldquoThis was a real place, and you can walk through it.&rdquo The world&rsquos most-visited ancient ruins, among them Ephesus, can indeed bring history alive. They feed our curiosity and inspire us to contemplate the passing of time&mdashand gawk at their sheer size.

&ldquoRuins represent human achievement writ large,&rdquo says Lynn Meskell, director of the Stanford Archaeology Center. Perhaps none looms larger than the Great Wall, which snakes for 5,500 miles across China&mdasha country of 1.3 billion increasingly travel-hungry people. The picturesque Badaling section is easily accessible from Beijing, and its combination of mass appeal, proximity, and infrastructure accounts for more than 9 million annual visitors, enough to propel the Great Wall to the No. 1 ranking.

Pop culture also fuels the romance of these ruins, whether it&rsquos a highbrow novel set during an ancient Chinese dynasty or a blockbuster movie starring the Egyptian pyramids. Americans recognize other ruins as the model for our own monuments, notably those of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. &ldquoWhen we look at the Acropolis with its majestic Parthenon in Athens, we don&rsquot just see a monument to Classical Greece,&rdquo observes John Papadopoulos, chair of the archaeology interdepartmental program at UCLA, citing it as a worldwide inspiration for democracy.

Such symbolic power can come at a price some of the most-visited ruins are in danger of being loved too much. &ldquoWe have the tremendous privilege of going to these places,&rdquo says Meskell. &ldquoWe enrich our own lives by visiting them. But we need to promote responsible, respectful, and considerate tourism.&rdquo

Read on to discover which ancient ruins attract the most visitors&mdashand heed Meskell&rsquos advice so that these sites will continue to outlast us.

The Methodology: Our criteria were that ruins be several hundred years old (in the Americas, at least 600), human-made, and no longer actively used for purposes other than tourism and research. While Asia has hundreds of Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples that meet the first two standards, those sacred sites are still used for worship. People still live in Pueblo de Taos in New Mexico and the ancient Chinese villages of Xidi and Hongcun, so we omitted them too. We used numbers from verifiable sources, such as tourism boards, ministries of culture, archaeological surveys, and local newspapers.


Angelokastro je bizantinski grad na otoku Krf. Nahaja se na vrhu najvišjega vrha otočne obale na severozahodni obali v bližini Palaiokastritse in je zgrajena na posebno strmem in skalnatem terenu. Stoji 305 m na strmi pečini nad morjem in raziskuje mesto Krf in gore celinske Grčije na jugovzhodu ter široko območje Krfa proti severovzhodu in severozahodu.

Angelokastro je eden najpomembnejših utrjenih kompleksov Krfa. To je bila akropola, ki je raziskovala regijo vse do južnega Jadrana in prebivalcu gradu predstavila izjemno strateško izhodišče.

Angelokastro je z gradovi Gardiki in Kassiopi tvoril obrambni trikotnik, ki je pokrival obrambo Krfa & quots na jugu, severozahodu in severovzhodu.

Grad kljub pogostim obleganjem in poskusom osvojitve skozi stoletja ni nikoli padel, imel pa je odločilno vlogo pri obrambi otoka pred vdori piratov in med tremi obleganji Krfa s strani Osmanov, kar je pomembno prispevalo k njihovemu porazu.

Med vdori je pomagal pri zavetju lokalnega kmečkega prebivalstva. Vaščani so se borili tudi proti napadalcem, ki so imeli aktivno vlogo pri obrambi gradu.

Natančno obdobje gradnje gradu ni znano, pogosto pa ga pripisujejo vladavini Mihaela I. Komnina in njegovega sina Mihaela II Komnena. Prvi dokumentirani dokazi o trdnjavi segajo v leto 1272, ko jo je prevzel Giordano di San Felice za Charlesa Anžujskega, ki je leta 1267 zasedel Krf od Manfreda, kralja Sicilije.

Od leta 1387 do konca 16. stoletja je bil Angelokastro uradna prestolnica Krfa in sedež Provveditore Generale del Levante, guverner jonskih otokov in poveljnik beneške flote, ki je bila nameščena na Krfu.

Guvernerja gradu (kaštelana) je običajno imenoval mestni svet Krfa in je bil izbran med plemiči na otoku.

Angelokastro velja za enega najbolj impozantnih arhitekturnih ostankov na Jonskih otokih.


Hove in the Past

The land on which the factory stood belonged originally to the Stanford Estate who sold two parcels of land in 1882 and 1892 to Frederick Napper, Brighton Miller. Land from the latter deal was leased to Horace Saunders, Brighton timber merchant, who in 1907 exercised the option to purchase. Napper sold the south part to Adolphe Drincqbier and the western portion to George and Frederick Parsons. The remaining part was leased to George Kelsey, coachbuilder, and Clarence J. Kerridge, builder, and this part of the land was gradually sold off.

It is interesting to note that there was an important industrial site at 2 Hove Park Villas from 1900 to
1903, before Dubarry’s came on the scene. Three brilliant brothers – Horace, Eustace and Oswald Short – backed by Colonel Gouraud established the Menlo Laboratories here Eustace and Oswald created their first hot air balloon on the premises, while Horace worked on his own inventions that required four separate patents. The brothers went on to become the first English aircraft manufacturers.
See Aldrington Recreation Ground for more details on the former Menlo Laboratories in Hove and the Short Brothers balloon flight at the Grand Opening of Aldrington Recreation Ground (Wish Park) on the 24th May 1900.


Poglej si posnetek: Skok v vodo -kopališče (December 2021).

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