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Vsakdanje življenje - zgodovina

Vsakdanje življenje - zgodovina


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Vsakdanje življenje - zgodovina

Jezusovo življenje v harmoniji
D aily Življenje v času Jezusa


T navadni ljudje

V času Jezusa je bila večina ljudi zelo revnih, ulice so bile ozke, njihove hiše majhne, ​​ceste umazane in grobe, pozimi je bilo veliko blata, poleti pa umazanije in prahu. Ljudje so trdo delali z rokami, bili so obrtniki, delavci, delavci, kmetje, kovinarji, izdelovalci keramike in moški vseh vrst poklicev, ki so se dobro zavedali, da bodo obdavčeni zelo visoko, medtem ko bodo bogati kupovali pot teh težav.

Bogati so živeli na obrobju z velikimi hišami, bujnimi vrtovi in ​​kopeli z vilami in obzidanimi ograjenimi prostori. Njihov življenjski slog je bil povsem drugačen, celo oskrba z vodo je prišla do njih v izobilju, pa naj gre za vodovod, cisterne ali bližnje izvire.

Verski so bili vseh vrst in bili so tudi med bogatimi. Bili so farizeji, saduceji, pismouki in učitelji postave in duhovniška elita so bili mojstri, da so se prikazali pravični in pustili navadne ljudi z nekakšnim občutkom krivde, kot da niso blagoslovljeni in ne živijo Božja merila.

Toda Gospod je vedno imel na očeh uboge in navadne ljudi, in ko se je Jezus pojavil, se ni bal govoriti proti hinavščini in dvigniti tiste, ki zaupajo v Boga. Zbrani ljudje so se hitro zbrali k Jezusu in mnogi med njimi so čakali, da se bodo uresničile velike Božje obljube.


Vsakdanje življenje v starodavni Mezopotamiji

Vsakdanjega življenja v starodavni Mezopotamiji ni mogoče opisati na enak način, kot bi opisali življenje v starem Rimu ali Grčiji. Mezopotamija ni bila nikoli enotna, enotna civilizacija niti pod akadskim cesarstvom Sargona Velikega. Na splošno pa od vzpona mest v c. 4500 pr. Civilizacije Mezopotamije so pisani besedi dajale veliko vrednost. Ko je bilo pisanje izumljeno, c. 3500-3000 pr. Ameriški avtor Thornton Wilder je nekoč zapisal: "V Babilonu je bilo nekoč dva milijona ljudi, o njih pa vemo le imena kraljev in nekaj kopij pšeničnih pogodb ter prodajo sužnjev" (Naše mesto). Wilder je seveda pisal leposlovje, ne zgodovino, veliko pa je bilo o mezopotamski zgodovini, ki je bila v času, ko je napisal svojo dramo, še neznana, vendar se je motil glede tega, kaj je sodobni svet, tudi svet njegovega časa, vedel o prebivalcih Mezopotamije . Pravzaprav poznamo veliko več kot le imena kraljev in prodajo sužnjev.

Prebivalstvo in družbeni razredi

Prebivalstvo starodavnih mezopotamskih mest se je zelo razlikovalo. V c. 2300 pr. N. Št. Uruk je imel 50.000 prebivalcev, medtem ko je imela Mari na severu 10.000 in Akkad 36.000 (Modelski, 6). Prebivalstvo teh mest je bilo razdeljeno na družbene razrede, ki so bili tako kot družbe v vsaki civilizaciji skozi zgodovino hierarhični. Ti razredi so bili: kralj in plemstvo, duhovniki in svečenice, zgornji razred, spodnji razred in sužnji.

Oglas

Kralj mesta, regije ali cesarstva je imel poseben odnos z bogovi in ​​je bil posrednik med božanskim svetom in zemeljskim kraljestvom. Globino kraljevega odnosa s svojimi bogovi in ​​božje zadovoljstvo z njegovo vladavino je ocenil uspeh ozemlja, ki mu je vladal. Veliki kralj bi razširil svoje kraljestvo in naredil deželo uspešno ter s tem pokazal, da so mu bogovi naklonjeni. Čeprav so se številne regije Mezopotamije večkrat uprle vladavini Sargona iz Akada (2334-2279 pr. N. Št.) In dinastije, ki jo je ustanovil, je zaradi uspešnih vojaških osvajanj in prostranosti svojega cesarstva vseeno postal legendarna osebnost. Ti dosežki bi pomenili, da so ga bogovi, ki jim je služil (v njegovem primeru Inanna), naklonjeni ne glede na to, kako se je posamezno človeško bitje ali skupnost počutilo glede Sargonove vladavine.

Oglas

Duhovniki in duhovnice so vodili svete vidike vsakdanjega življenja in opravljali verske obrede. Bili so pismeni in so veljali za spretne pri razlagi znamenj in znamenj. Služili so tudi kot zdravilci. Prvi zdravniki in zobozdravniki Mezopotamije so bili svečenice, ki so obiskale ljudi na zunanjem dvorišču templja. Med najbolj znanimi svečenicami je bila Enheduanna (2285-2250 pr. Enheduanna ne bi služila kot zdravilka, njen dan bi bil porabljen za skrb za templje in poslovanje okoliškega kompleksa ter za obrede.

V višji razred so spadali trgovci, ki so imeli v lasti lastna podjetja, pisarji, zasebni učitelji in sčasoma tudi visoki vojaki. Drugi poklici višjega razreda so bili računovodje, arhitekti, astrologi (ki so bili običajno duhovniki) in ladjedelniki. Trgovec, ki je imel lastno podjetje in mu ni bilo treba potovati, je bil človek prostega časa, ki je v družbi prijateljev lahko užival v najboljšem pivu v mestu, medtem ko so ga obiskovali sužnji. Pisarji so bili zelo spoštovani in so služili na sodišču, v templju in v šolah. Vsak učitelj je bil pisar in ena najpomembnejših disciplin, ki so jih poučevali v vsaki mezopotamski šoli, je bilo pisanje. Šolo so obiskovali samo fantje. Čeprav so ženske uživale skoraj enake pravice, še vedno niso bile dovolj inteligentne, da bi lahko obvladale pismenost. Ta paradigma je ostala v veljavi tudi po pomembni karieri Enheduanne. Tudi zasebni učitelji so bili zelo cenjeni in so jih bogate mestne družine dobro plačale, da so svojim sinovom pomagale pri uspehu pri šolskem delu. Zasebni učitelji, ki niso zaposleni v šoli (ki jo je pogosto vodil tempelj), so veljali za moške z izjemno inteligenco, vrlino in značajem. Popolnoma so se predali študentu ali študentom pod njihovim tutorstvom in, če so imeli stranko z visokimi zmožnostmi, so živeli skoraj tako dobro kot on.

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Nižji razred so sestavljali tisti poklici, zaradi katerih so mesto ali regija dejansko delovali: kmetje, umetniki, glasbeniki, gradbeniki, graditelji kanalov, peki, izdelovalci košar, mesarji, ribiči, nosilci skodelic, izdelovalci opek, pivovarji, lastniki krčm, prostitutke, metalurgi, mizarji, izdelovalci parfumov, lončarji, izdelovalci nakita, zlatarji, vozički in kasneje vozniki vozov, vojaki, mornarji in trgovci, ki so delali v podjetju drugega človeka. Od zgoraj naštetih bi se lahko prostitutke, izdelovalci parfumov, izdelovalci nakita in zlatarji v pravih okoliščinah (na primer izjemne spretnosti ali iskanje naklonjenosti pri bogatem zavetniku ali kralju) obravnavali kot poklici višjega razreda. Vsak član nižjega razreda pa bi se lahko povzpel na družbeno lestvico. Asiriolog Jean Bottero ugotavlja, da "mestu Kish ni vladal kralj, ampak energična kraljica, imenovana Ku-baba, nekdanja krčmarica, o kateri ne vemo ničesar drugega" (125). Večinoma so bile ženske premeščene na delovna mesta nižjega razreda, vendar so očitno lahko imele enake cenjene položaje kot moški. Ženske so bile prve pivovarke in gostinke ter tudi prve zdravnice in zobozdravnice v starodavni Mezopotamiji, preden so se ti poklici izkazali za donosne in so jih prevzeli moški.

Najnižji družbeni red so bili sužnji. Suženj lahko postane na več načinov: ujet v vojni, se prodati v suženjstvo, da bi poplačal dolg, biti prodan kot kazen za zločin, ugrabljen in prodan v suženjstvo v drugi regiji ali pa ga proda družina član za odplačilo dolga. Sužnji niso imeli enotne narodnosti in niso bili zaposleni samo za ročno delo. Sužnji so hranili hišo, upravljali velika posestva, poučevali majhne otroke, negovali konje, služili kot računovodje in usposobljeni izdelovalci nakita, lahko pa so bili zaposleni v kakršni koli vlogi, za katero je njihov gospodar videl, da ima talent. Suženj, ki je pridno delal za svojega gospodarja, bi lahko na koncu si kupijo svobodo.

Oglas

Hiše in pohištvo

Kralj in njegov dvor sta seveda živela v palači in palačnem kompleksu. V mestih so bili domovi zgrajeni iz središča naselja, ki je bil tempelj s svojim ziguratom. Najbogatejši in najvišji na družbeni lestvici so živeli najbližje središču. Domovi premožnih so bili zgrajeni iz opeke, posušene na soncu, medtem ko so bile hiše ljudi z slabimi sredstvi zgrajene iz trstike. Opozoriti pa je treba, da so te stavbe še vedno veljale za hiše in niso bile »koče«, ki so si jih tako pogosto predstavljali. Zgodovinar Bertman opisuje gradnjo teh domov in piše:

Za izgradnjo preproste hiše bi visoke močvirne rastline iztrgali, zbrali skupaj in jih povezali v tesne snope. Ko bi v zemljo izkopali luknje, bi vtaknili snope trstičja, en snop na luknjo. Ko so bile luknje napolnjene in trdno zapakirane, bi se pari svežnjev, ki so obrnjeni drug proti drugemu, upognili in na vrhu zvezali skupaj ter tvorili lok. Preostale snope bi nato združili na podoben način ... Trsne preproge bi nato na vrhu prekrili, da bi pokrili streho, ali pa jih obesili na stensko odprtino, da bi naredili vrata (285).

Bertman nadaljuje, da za izgradnjo hiše iz opeke,

Glino z bregov bi pomešali s slamo za ojačitev in jo pakirali v majhne lesene kalupe v obliki opeke, ki bi jih nato dvignili, da bi se blatne opeke lahko posušile na tleh na vročem soncu ... Osušena opeka je bila znana kot nestalna, zlasti kot posledica letnih nalivov. Alternativa, opeka iz pečice, pa je bila draga zaradi goriva in usposobljene delovne sile, potrebne za njeno izdelavo. Posledično se je raje uporabljal za hiše kraljev in bogov, ne pa za domove navadnih ljudi. (285-286).

Svetlobo v domu so zagotavljale majhne svetilke na sezamovo olje in včasih okna (v dražjih domovih). Okna so bila izdelana iz lesenega žara, in ker je bil les redka dobrina, so bila okna hiše redka. Zunanjost opečnih hiš je bila pobeljena ("dodatna obramba pred sijočo toploto", kot ugotavlja Bertman) in "obstajala bi samo ena zunanja vrata, njihov okvir je pobarvan v svetlo rdečo barvo, da bi preprečil zle duhove" (286). Zgodovinarka Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat ugotavlja, da je bil »namen hiše v južnem Iraku zavetje pred dvanajstimi urami nepopustljive vročine-podnebjem od maja do septembra« (121). Po septembru je prišla deževna sezona hladnejšega vremena, ko bi se domovi ogrevali s sežiganjem palmovih listov ali palmovega lesa.

Palače, templji in domovi višjega razreda so imeli okrašene žare za ogrevanje prostorov, nižji razredi pa so uporabljali plitvo jamo, obloženo s utrjeno glino. Notranja vodovodna instalacija je bila široko uporabljena vsaj v 3. tisočletju pred našim štetjem s stranišči v ločenih prostorih višjerazrednih domov, palač in templjev. Odtočni kanali, zgrajeni poševno, bi nosili odpadke iz stavbe v greznico ali kanalizacijski sistem iz glinenih cevi, ki bi jih prevažali do reke. Vsi domovi v regiji Sumer, bodisi bogati ali revni, so potrebovali blagoslov bratov-bogov Kabte in Mushdamme (božanstva, ki sta predsedovala temeljem, zgradbam, gradnjam in opekam), preden se je lahko začel kateri koli gradbeni projekt in po zaključku , so v zahvalo darovali bogu dokončane gradnje Arazuju. Vsaka regija Mezopotamije je imela neko obliko teh istih bogov. Njihov blagoslov pa je vedno zagotavljal varen dom. Nemet-Nejet piše:

Oglas

Starodavne hiše, zlasti tiste iz opeke, posušene na soncu, so pogosto propadale. Hammurabijevi zakoni so temu problemu namenili pet oddelkov, pri čemer je posebej poudaril odgovornost graditelja: "Če graditelj zgradi hišo za človeka, vendar ne naredi svojega dela zdravega, hiša, ki jo gradi, se zruši in povzroči smrt gospod, ta graditelj bo ubit. Če bi to povzročilo smrt sina gospodinjstva, morajo ubiti sina tega graditelja «(121).

Domovi so bili opremljeni na skoraj enak način kot danes s stoli (ki so imeli noge, hrbte in v bogatejših domovih roke), mize, postelje in kuhinjsko posodo. V bogatih domovih so bile postelje iz lesenega okvirja, prepredene z vrvjo ali trstiko, pokrite z žimnico, polnjeno z volno ali kozjo dlako, in so imele platnene rjuhe. Te postelje so bile pogosto zapleteno izrezljane in so bile do tretjega tisočletja včasih »prekrite z zlatom, srebrom ali bakrom« in so imele »noge, ki so se pogosto končale z volovsko stopalo ali krempljem« (Nemet-Nejet, 125). Nižji razredi si seveda niso mogli privoščiti takšnega razkošja in so spali na preprogah iz tkane slame ali trstike, položene na tla. Mize so bile zgrajene na enak način, kot so še danes (bolj uspešni domovi so imeli platnene prte in prtičke), družine pa so se zbrale za mizo na večerji na enak način, kot jih mnogi še vedno počnejo

Družina in prosti čas

Družina je bila sestavljena tako, kot je danes, z mamo, očetom, otroki in širšo družino. Moški in ženske so delali, medtem ko je bilo življenje otrok usmerjeno glede na njihov spol in socialni status. Moški otroci višjih razredov so bili poslani v šolo, medtem ko so njihove sestre ostale doma in se učile domače umetnosti, sinovi nižjih razredov so sledili očetom na polja ali katero koli drugo delo, medtem ko so hčere, tako kot pri višjih razredih, , posnemali vlogo svoje matere pri njenem delu. Tudi igrače, s katerimi so se igrali ti otroci, so bile podobne današnjim igračam, kot so tovornjaki z igračami in punčke. Bertman piše:

Za dojenčke in malčke so bile uporabljene klopotce iz terakote, napolnjene s peleti in na robovih stisnjene kot pito, z majhno luknjico za vrvico. Za fante, ki sanjajo o lovu ali vojaštvu, so bile na voljo praćke in mali loki ter puščice in bumerangi. Za dekleta, ki so upala, da bodo nekoč vzgojila svoje otroke, so bile lutke in miniaturni kosi pohištva (mize, stolčki in postelje) za igranje hiš. Medtem ročne ladje in vozovi ter drobne vprežne živali in vozovi omogočajo mladim potovanje po svetu njihove domišljije. Za več zabave so bile na voljo tudi žogice in obroči ter igra skakalnice, ki se je radovedno imenovala za boginjo ljubezni Ishtar (298-299).

Družine so uživale tudi v družabnih igrah (najbolj priljubljena je podobna igri Parcheesi) in igrah s kockami. Slike prikazujejo družine v prostem času na podoben način kot družinske fotografije danes. Zdi se, da so športi v prvi vrsti vključevali moške, najbolj priljubljena pa sta bila rokoborba in boks med nižjimi sloji ter lov med plemstvom. Kot je navedeno, je bil družinski obrok podoben tistemu v današnjem času, glavna razlika pa so bile oblike zabave med in po večerji. Pripovedovanje zgodb je bilo pomemben vidik večernega obroka, prav tako glasba. V revnejših domovih bi družinski član igral kakšen inštrument ali prepeval ali pripovedoval zgodbo, po večerji so imeli bogati v ta namen sužnje ali profesionalne zabavljače. Ti ljudje so igrali instrumente, ki so v sodobnem času znani vsem.

Oglas

Mezopotamci so imeli seveda pevce in tudi tolkala (bobni, zvonovi, kastine, sistrumi in ropotulje), pihalna glasbila (snemalci, flavte, rogovi in ​​godalne pipe) in godala (lira in harfa). Slike po vsej Mezopotamiji pričajo o veliki ljubezni ljudi do glasbe, Bertman pa piše: »Tako velika je bila pravzaprav kraljica Urove ljubezni do glasbe, zato ni mogla prenesti misli, da bi bila v posmrtnem svetu brez nje, s pomočjo spalni napoj v grobu, s seboj je odnesla svoje kraljevske glasbenike «(295). Napisi in slike prikazujejo tudi Mezopotamce, ki poslušajo glasbo, medtem ko pijejo pivo ali berejo ali se sproščajo doma ali na vrtu. Bertman ugotavlja, da je bila »glasba sestavni del starodavnega mezopotamskega življenja. Slike na vloženih ploščah, izrezljanih tjulnjih in izklesanih reliefih nas popeljejo nazaj v svet zvoka. Opazujemo pastirja, ki igra na flavto, ko njegov pes sedi in pozorno posluša «(294). Glasba je bila, vsaj za bogatejše občane, tudi sestavni del pogostitve in celo zasebnih obrokov.

Hrana in oblačila

Glavni žitni pridelek v Mezopotamiji je bil ječmen, zato ni čudno, da so prvi izumili pivo. Boginja piva je bila Ninkasi, katere znamenita himna iz c. 1800 pr. N. Št. Je tudi najstarejši recept za pivo na svetu. Pivo naj bi izviralo iz fermentiranega ječmenovega kruha. Mezopotamci so uživali tudi prehrano s sadjem in zelenjavo (jabolka, češnje, fige, melone, marelice, hruške, slive in datlji ter solata, kumare, korenje, fižol, grah, pesa, zelje in repa) ter ribe iz potokov in rek ter živino iz njihovih oborov (večinoma koz, prašičev in ovac, saj so bile krave drage za vzdrževanje in so bile predragocene za zakol za goveje meso). To prehrano bi povečali z lovsko divjadjo, kot so jeleni, gazele in ptice. Ljudje so hranili tudi udomačene gosi in race za jajca. Zgodovinar Jean Bottero ugotavlja, da so imeli Mezopotamci "impresiven zaklad blaga", ki je sestavljal njihove vsakodnevne obroke in jih začinil z olji in mineralnimi izdelki (na primer sezamovo olje in sol), in nadalje ugotavlja, da so "vse te avtohtone sestavine tako raznolika, da, kolikor nam je znano, Mezopotamci kljub intenzivnosti in geografskemu obsegu svoje trgovine nikoli niso uvažali iz tujine «(45–46). Skupaj s pivom (ki je bilo tako cenjeno, da so ga uporabljali za plače delavcev) so ljudje pili močno vino ali vodo. Pivo pa je bilo najbolj priljubljena pijača v starodavni Mezopotamiji in je zaradi svojih hranil in debeline pogosto služilo kot največji del opoldanskega obroka.

Mezopotamci bi se umivali in oblačili za večerjo. Preden bi karkoli pojedli, so se bogovi, ki so priskrbeli hrano, poklonili hvaležni molitvi. Religija je bila sestavni del življenja vseh Mezopotamijcev in ker je bila osredotočena na človeka kot sodelavca z bogovi, so bila božanstva mezopotamskega panteona del vsakdanjega življenja. Bogovi so ljudem zagotovili vse njihove potrebe, v zameno pa so ljudje delali v službi bogov. Bottero piše: »Ti bogovi niso bili samo začetniki vesolja in človeštva, ampak so ostali njihovi vrhovni gospodarji in vodili njihov obstoj in evolucijo iz dneva v dan. Zato so veljali za spodbujalce in poroke vseh neskončnih obveznosti - pozitivnih in negativnih -, ki urejajo človeško življenje «(248). Vsi vidiki obstoja Mezopotamije so bili prežeti z občutkom božanskega na delu, tudi oblačila, ki so jih nosili

Oblačila v Mezopotamiji so, tako kot vse ostalo, narekovali in odražali družbeni položaj osebe. Bertman to ugotavlja

arheologi potrjujejo, da je bil tekstil med prvimi človeškimi izumi. Rastlinska vlakna so bila morda zvita, šivana in pletena [za izdelavo oblačil] že v stari kameni dobi, pred približno 25.000 leti [vendar] se zdi, da je bila volna najpogostejša vrsta tkanine Mezopotamije, skupaj s platnom, ki je bilo rezervirano za dražja oblačila. Bombaž je bil uveden šele v časih Asircev, ki so rastlino uvozili iz Egipta in Sudana okoli 700 pr.n.št. in svile, morda šele v času Rimljanov, ki so jo uvozili iz Kitajske (289).

Moški so na splošno nosili dolgo obleko ali nagubana krila iz kozje ali ovčje kože, ženske pa oblečene v enodelne tunike iz volne ali lana. Vojaki so v starodavnih upodobitvah značilni po tem, da so na uniformah vedno nosili ogrinjala s kapuco. Starejše moške vedno vidimo v enodelnih haljah, ki jim padejo do gležnjev, medtem ko se zdi, da so mlajši moški nosili obleko ali krilo. Ženske so vedno upodobljene v obleki, vendar te obleke niso bile enotno enobarvne. V oblekah mezopotamskih žensk je vidnih veliko različnih vzorcev in modelov, medtem ko so moški, razen kraljev in vojakov ter včasih pisarjev, rutinsko vidni v monotonih oblačilih. Šali, ogrinjala s kapuco in ovitki so bili uporabljeni v slabem vremenu, pogosto pa so bili vezeni in pobarvani. Dekleta, oblečena kot njihove matere, in fantje, kot so njihovi očeti, in vsi so nosili sandale večjega ali skromnejšega dizajna. Ženske sandale so bile na splošno bolj okrašene kot moške.

Ženske in moški so nosili kozmetiko in, kot piše Bertman, je "želja po izboljšanju naravne lepote in privlačnosti z uporabo kozmetike in parfumov potrjena že v sumerskih časih" (291). Moški in ženske bi orisali svoje oči z zgodnjo obliko maskare, podobno kot to delajo Egipčani, parfum pa sta po kopanju uporabljala oba spola. Parfumi so bili narejeni tako, da so "aromatične rastline namočili v vodo in zmešali njihovo bistvo z oljem" (Bertman, 291), nekateri od teh receptov pa so postali tako priljubljeni, da so jih skrbno varovali, saj so lahko proizvajalca parfumov dvignili iz delavca nižjega razreda v skoraj stopnjo plemstva.

Zaključek

Vsakdanje življenje starih Mezopotamijcev se ni tako razlikovalo od življenja tistih, ki danes živijo na tem območju. Tako kot v sodobnem svetu so tudi prebivalci starodavnih regij Mezopotamije ljubili svoje družine, delali službo in uživali v prostem času. Tehnološki napredek daje danes vtis, da smo veliko modrejši in bistveno drugačni od tistih, ki so živeli tisoče let pred nami, a arheološki zapisi govorijo drugačno zgodbo. Človek nikoli ni bil tako drugačen, tako v dobrem kot v slabem smislu, kot smo mi danes, osnovne potrebe in želje, pa tudi vsakdanje življenje prebivalcev starodavne Mezopotamije se držijo vzorca, ki je zlahka prepoznaven.


Umetnosti

Mongolska književnost se je razvila iz bogastva tradicionalnih ustnih zvrsti: junaških epov, legend, zgodb, yörööl (poezija dobrih želja) in magtaal (pohvalna poezija), pa tudi množica pregovornih izrekov. Ti žanri so prežeti s tem, kar imajo Mongoli za nacionalno značilnost-dobrodušno ljubezen do življenja, s posebno naklonjenostjo duhovitim izrekom in šalam. Od 17. do 19. stoletja je bil Dalan Khuldalchi (dobesedno "Nešteti lažnivec" ali "Multifibber") vir šaljivih ljudskih pravljic, na primer "Kako narediti klobučevino iz volne muhe." Obstajajo zgodbe o badarchin, hudomušni posamični menihi, medtem ko khuurchinsBards - prenašal ustne epike in balade. Verske skrivnosti, tsam in maidari, prepovedani v tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja v okviru antireligiozne politike socialističnega režima, oživljajo v samostanih, sodelujoče lame, oblečene in zamaskirane kot bogovi tibetanskega budizma. Te epizode igralci uprizarjajo za turiste.

Najpomembnejše mongolsko literarno delo, Nuuts Tovchoo (v angleščini znan kot Tajna zgodovina Mongolov) - delno zgodovinsko, deloma legendarno in skoraj sodobno poročilo o življenju in časih Džingis -kana - je bilo tako rekoč neznano, dokler ga v poznem 19. stoletju v Pekingu ni našel njegove kopije. Napisana je bila s kitajskimi črkami in je prepisala srednjeveški mongolski jezik, kar je otežilo identifikacijo in povzročilo nesporazume glede njene pristnosti. The Tajna zgodovina je bil od takrat objavljen v številnih različicah, vključno s staro mongolsko pisavo in sodobno mongolsko v mongolski cirilici, prevedena pa je bila v angleščino in druge tuje jezike. Strokovnjaki ga še vedno preučujejo kot zgodovinski vir in ključ do razvoja mongolskega jezika.

V literaturi so pesmi in kratke zgodbe, ki jih je napisal Dashdorjiin Natsagdorj v tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, komunistične oblasti vzele za zgled mongolskega »socialističnega realizma«. Njegova najbolj znana pesem "Moj dom" ("Minii Nutag") hvali naravne lepote Mongolije. Napisal je tudi opero o revoluciji, znani kot Uchirtai gurvan tolgoi ("Three Sad Hills"), ki se izvaja še danes. Natsagdorj je umrl prezgodaj leta 1937 kmalu po izpustitvi iz kratkega zapora (po lažnih obtožbah). V bližini templja Choijin Lame je njegov spomenik. Po drugi strani pa je bil učenjak in pisatelj Byambiin Rinchin, sodobnik Natsagdorja, napaden zaradi svojih romanov, ker so veljali za "fevdalne in nacionalistične". Zaprt je bil tudi Rinchin, ki pa je preživel čistke v poznih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in umrl leta 1977. Postal je eden najvplivnejših piscev zgodovinskega romana, ki se je pojavil v petdesetih letih.

Med drugimi pomembnimi mongolskimi literarnimi osebnostmi sta pisatelj in novinar Tsendiin Damdinsüren ter pesnik Ochirbatyn Dashbalbar. Damdinsüren (1908–88), prevajalec ruskih romanov in nekoč obtožen »meščanskega nacionalizma«, je napisal besede mongolske državne himne in izdal tri zvezke komentarja o mongolski književnosti. Dashbalbar (1957–99), ki je obiskoval in diplomiral na literarnem inštitutu v Moskvi, se je predstavil kot poslanec v mongolskem parlamentu (služboval 1996–99). Vrstica iz ene od njegovih pesmi: "V svojem življenju se ljubite, ljudje moji!" je bil njegov epitaf.

Državno akademsko dramsko gledališče (ustanovljeno 1931) in Državno akademsko gledališče opere in baleta (1963), oba v Ulaanbaatarju, (Ulan Bator) izvajata tako mongolska kot zahodna klasična dela. V prestolnici je tudi lutkovno gledališče. Cirkuske skupine v državi so bile nekoč priljubljene tako v Mongoliji kot po svetu, vendar je usoda preostale zasedbe negotova in njena cirkuška arena je v slabem stanju. Ljudska, glasbena in plesna podjetja nastopajo v narodnih oblačilih s tradicionalnimi mongolskimi glasbili, kot je morin khuur (gosla konjske glave) in yatga (nekakšna citra). Filmski studio Mongolkino je s svojimi širokozaslonskimi epopejami, zlasti o Džingis-kana, vse bolj vplival na mednarodne festivale. Po drugi strani pa so filmi o pozornem opazovanju podeželskega življenja vključevali mednarodno priznane dragulje, kot so npr Zgodba o jokajoči kameli (2003).

Ljudska umetnost vključuje izdelavo shirdeg, vezena prešita klobučevina za talne obloge in sedežne odeje za kamele gutal, okrašeni mongolski škornji s privitimi prsti in različnimi drugimi izdelki iz usnja. Šah in miniature mongolskih živali in ptic so izrezljani iz kamna ali lesa. Obrtniki delajo tudi tradicionalne sestavljene loke in puščice, glasbila in medsebojno povezane lesene uganke. Kovinarji izdelujejo čudovite posode za pitje iz srebra in elegantne bakrene vrče.


Selden avtomobilski patentni model, 1879

George B. Selden je svojo trditev, da je "oče avtomobila", utemeljil na tem konceptualnem modelu vozila na motor z notranjim zgorevanjem, ki ga je zasnoval leta 1879 in patentiral leta 1895.

Nobenemu posamezniku ni mogoče pripisati izključno tega, da je izumil avto, njegovo oblikovanje in proizvodnjo pa so oblikovale številne različne inovacije. Toda petnajst let so ameriška sodišča potrdila Seldenovo trditev, da je prva, drugi proizvajalci avtomobilov pa so plačali pravice do uporabe njegovega "izuma". Leta 1911 je tožba Henryja Forda razveljavila Seldenovo trditev.


"Heil Hitler!": Lekcije vsakdanjega življenja

Leta 1938 je pisateljica Erika Mann izdala knjigo z naslovom Šola za barbare: Izobraževanje pod nacisti (Glej branje, The Birthday Party, za drug odlomek iz Mannove knjige). Mann je emigrirala iz Nemčije v ZDA leta 1937. Njena knjiga je kritizirala prizadevanja nacistov, da oblikujejo ideje in občutke mladih. V njej opisuje, kako je bilo vsakdanje življenje v Nemčiji nekakšna "šola", ki je izobraževala otroke v skladu z nacističnimi ideali:

Vsak otrok reče "Heil Hitler!" od 50 do 150 krat na dan, neizmerno pogosteje kot stari nevtralni pozdravi. Formula je po zakonu zahtevana, če na poti v šolo srečate prijatelja, pravite, da se študijska obdobja odpirajo in zaključujejo s "Heil Hitler!" "Heil Hitler!" pravi poštar, dirigent uličnih avtomobilov, dekle, ki ti prodaja zvezke v pisarniški trgovini in če prve besede tvojih staršev, ko prideš domov na kosilo, niso "Heil Hitler!" so bili krivi za kaznivo dejanje in jih je mogoče obsoditi. "Heil Hitler!" kričijo v Jungvolk in Hitlerjeve mladine. "Heil Hitler!" jokati dekleta v ligi nemških deklet. Vaše večerne molitve se morajo zaključiti s "Heil Hitler!" če svoje predanosti jemljete resno.

Uradno - ko pozdravite svoje nadrejene v šoli ali v skupini - besede spremlja dejanje z dvigom desne roke visoko, neuradni pozdrav med enakimi pa zahteva le razmeroma ohlapno dvigovanje podlakti z zaprtimi prsti in usmerjen naprej. Ta Hitlerjev pozdrav, ta »nemški« pozdrav, ki se je neštetokrat ponavljal od jutra do spanja, žiguje ves dan.

Heil v resnici pomeni odrešenje in se je včasih uporabljalo za odnose med človekom in njegovim Bogom, o katerih bi govorili ewiges Heil (večno odrešenje), pridevnik »sveti« pa izhaja iz samostalnika. Toda zdaj je nova uporaba. . . .

Zjutraj zapustite hišo z napisom »Heil Hitler« na ustnicah in na stopnicah vaše stanovanjske hiše srečate Blockwart [upravitelj blokov]. Oseba velikega pomena in nevarnosti, Blockwart je vlada postavila kot nacističnega varuha. Nadzira blok, o njem redno poroča, preverja vedenje njegovih prebivalcev. Vredno se je soočiti z vojaškim slogom in mu dati "velik" Hitlerjev pozdrav, z desno roko, kolikor bo lahko. Vseskozi po ulici se vijejo zastave, vsako okno je obarvano z rdečimi transparenti, sredi vsakega pa črna svastika. Ne nehaš se spraševati, zakaj je to gotovo državni dogodek. Ne mine teden brez priložnosti, ko bi družinam dali takšen ali drugačen razlog za obešanje svastike. Samo Judje so izvzeti po strogih predpisih. Judje niso Nemci, ne pripadajo "narodu", ne morejo imeti "nacionalnih dogodkov".

Na poti v šolo srečate uniforme, črne [uniformirane] moške S.S., moške prostovoljne delovne službe in vojake Reichswehra [nemška vojska]. In če so nekatere ulice zaprte, veste, da se po mestu vozi uradnik. Nihče vam ni rekel, da visoki uradniki drugih držav gredo brez previdnosti pri zaprtih ulicah.

In tukaj, kjer gre zgradba, delavcev ni več - verjetno zaradi »državnega dogodka«. Toda znak je na odru. »Führerju se moramo zahvaliti, da danes delamo tukaj. Pozdravljeni Hitler! " Znani znak, viden povsod z moškimi v službi, na cestah, vojašnicah, športnih igriščih. Kaj vam pomeni? Ali mislite na zunanji svet z delavci, ki se za svoje delo ne potrebujejo zahvaliti Führerju? Certainly not—what you have imprinted on your mind is the sentence, deep and accepted as an old melody.

There are more placards as you continue past hotels, restaurants, indoor swimming pools, to school. They read “No Jews allowed”—“Jews not desired here”—“Not for Jews.” And what do you feel? Agreement? Pleasure? Disgust? Opposition? You don’t feel any of these. You don’t feel anything, you’ve seen these placards for almost five years. This is a habit, it is all perfectly natural, of course Jews aren’t allowed here. Five years in the life of a child of nine—that’s his life, after four years of infancy, his whole personal, conscious existence.

Through the Nazi street walks the Nazi child. There is nothing to disturb him, nothing to attract his attention or criticism. The stands sell Nazi newspapers almost exclusively all German papers are Nazi foreign newspapers are forbidden, if they do not please the men at the top. The child won’t be surprised at their huge headlines: “UNHEARD-OF ACTS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST GERMANY IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA!” “JEWISH GANGSTERS RULE AMERICA!” “THE COMMUNIST TERROR IN SPAIN SUPPORTED BY THE POPE!” “150 MORE PRIESTS UNMASKED AS SEXUAL CRIMINALS!”

“That’s how it is in the world,” the child thinks. “What luck we’re in, to have a Führer. He’ll tell the whole bunch—Czechs, Jews, Americans, Communists, and priests—where to get off!”

There are no doubts, no suspicion at the coarse and hysterical tone of the dispatches, no hint that they may be inexact or false. No, these things are part of the everyday world of the Nazis, like the Blockwart, the swastika, the signs reading “No Jews allowed.” They add up to an atmosphere that is torture, a fuming poison for a free-born human being.

The German child breathes this air. There is no other condition wherever Nazis are in power and here in Germany they do rule everywhere, and their supremacy over the German child, as he learns and eats, marches, grows up, breathes, is complete. 1

Citati

  • 1 : Erika Mann, School for Barbarians: Education Under the Nazis (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1938), 21–24. Reproduced by permission from Dover Publications.

Audio Version

The Hitler Youth Movement was an essential part of the Nazi Party's ideology and plan for the future. By the start of World War II in 1939, about 90% of "Aryan" children- girls and boys- in Germany belonged to Nazi youth groups. This audio reading explains through the eyes of Erika Mann, a German opposed to the Nazis, how the Hitler Youth groups operated.


Vsebina

Everyday life is a key concept in cultural studies and is a specialized subject in the field of sociology. Some argue that, motivated by capitalism and industrialism's degrading effects on human existence and perception, writers and artists of the 19th century turned more towards self-reflection and the portrayal of everyday life represented in their writings and art to a noticeably greater degree than in past works, for example Renaissance literature's interest in hagiography and politics. [1] Other theorists dispute this argument based on a long history of writings about daily life which can be seen in works from Ancient Greece, medieval Christianity and the Age of Enlightenment. [2] [3]

In the study of everyday life gender has been an important factor in its conceptions. Some theorists regard women as the quintessential representatives and victims of everyday life. [2]

The connotation of everyday life is often negative and is distinctively separated from exceptional moments by its lack of distinction and differentiation, ultimately defined as the essential, taken-for-granted continuum of mundane activity that outlines forays into more esoteric experiences. It is the non-negotiable reality that exists amongst all social groupings without discrimination and is an unavoidable basis for which all human endeavor exists. [1]

Much of everyday life is automatic in that it is driven by current environmental features as mediated by automatic cognitive processing of those features, and without any mediation by conscious choice, according to social psychologist John A. Bargh. [4] Daily life is also studied by sociologists to investigate how it is organised and given meaning. A sociological journal called the Journal of Mundane Behavior, published 2000 - 2004, studied these everyday actions.

Daily entertainment once consisted mainly of telling stories in the evening. This custom developed into the theatre of ancient Greece and other professional entertainments. Reading later became less a mysterious specialty of scholars, and more a common pleasure for people who could afford books. During the 20th century mass media became prevalent in rich countries, creating among other things a daily prime time to consume fiction and other professionally produced works.

Different media forms serve different purposes in different individuals' everyday lives—which give people the opportunities to make choices about what media form(s)--watching television, using the Internet, listening to the radio, or reading newspapers or magazines—most effectively help them to accomplish their tasks. [5] Many people have steadily increased their daily use of the Internet, over all other media forms. Fearing changes promoted by mass entertainment, social conservatives have long censored books and films, called television a vast wasteland, and predicted that social media and other Internet sites would distract people from good personal relationships or valuable interactions. These concerns did not prevent the progressively wider popularity of these innovations.

People's everyday lives are shaped through language and communication. They choose what to do with their time based on opinions and ideals formed through the discourse they are exposed to. [6] Much of the dialogue people are subject to comes from the mass media, which is an important factor in what shapes human experience. [7] The media uses language to make an impact on one’s everyday life, whether that be as small as helping to decide where to eat or as big as choosing a representative in government.

To improve people's everyday life, Phaedra Pezzullo, professor in the Department of Communication and Culture at Indiana University Bloomington, says people should seek to understand the rhetoric that so often and unnoticeably changes their lives. She writes that “. rhetoric enables us to make connections. It's about understanding how we engage with the world.” [8]

Activities of daily living (ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to daily self care activities within an individual's place of residence, in outdoor environments, or both. Health professionals routinely refer to the ability or inability to perform ADLs as a measurement of the functional status of a person, particularly in regard to people with disabilities and the elderly. [9] ADLs are defined as "the things we normally do. such as feeding ourselves, bathing, dressing, grooming, work, homemaking, and leisure." [10] The ability and the extent to which the elderly can perform these activities is at the focus of gerontology and understandings of later life. [11] In an 'active society' which sees mobility as an important norm, constant physical activity has replaced the striving towards personal growth in later life. [12] When you are getting into the routine of daily life, you can lose value and joy in everyday things. Routine is no longer there to keep you sane, but it takes the joy out of your life. Spontaneity and a break from routine can offer more relief from the hardships of day-to-day life. People need to live a life of fulfillment to enjoy and savor their life. When we focus on the hardships of life, we never see pass the negativity. [13] Reflection and acknowledgment of positive life experiences are important to daily life. Daily routine has us so caught up in a cycle, we never leave room for change or improvement. We stick to what we know and feel safe. The routine causes us to focus on the negative things in life. For example, another bill, bad health, money trouble, and toxic relationships. A break from routine allows us to self-evaluate and focus on positivity. Exploring hobbies or talents can bring more joy and exciting elements into our lives. We can alter daily habits and routines simply by add more change rather than the menial tasks we do daily can affect how we see life and progress “Habits are powerful but delicate. They can emerge outside our consciousness or can be deliberately designed. They often occur without our permission but can be reshaped by fiddling with their parts. They shape our lives far more than we realize—they are so strong, in fact, that they cause our brains to cling to them at the exclusion of all else, including common sense.” [14]


Umetnosti

Romanian culture offers a variety of forms of folk art that have survived years of outside interference and domination. Wood carvings, brightly ornamented costumes, skillfully woven carpets, pottery, and other elements of traditional Romanian culture remain popular and, with the growth of tourism, have become known internationally. Folk art is characterized by abstract or geometric designs and stylized representations of plants and animals. In embroidery and textiles, designs and colour schemes can be associated with particular regions of the country. Special folk arts of Romania include the decoration of highly ornamental Easter eggs and painting on glass, which sometimes includes religious icons.

Music remains an especially vibrant medium of expression in Romania. Major instruments are the cobza (a stringed instrument resembling a lute), the tambal (a hammered dulcimer), and the flaut (flute), which is the most common folk instrument. Other musical instruments played in Romania are the alphorn, bagpipes, a pear-shaped lute, and nai (panpipes). Energetic Roma songs are closely associated with this area of eastern Europe, and folksinging and dance festivals are popular throughout the country. Folk music includes dance music, laments known as doinas (which are unique to Romania), ballads, and pastoral music. Folk melodies are preserved in the music of modern Romanian composers such as Georges Enesco.

By the beginning of the second half of the 19th century, Romanian artists who were attracting international attention included poets Mihail Eminescu and Tudor Arghezi, storyteller Ion Creanga, painter Nicolae Grigorescu, and playwright Ion Luca Caragiale.

During and after World War II, many leading Romanian artists and intellectuals emigrated to elsewhere in Europe and to North America to escape oppression. Among them were playwright Eugène Ionesco poet, essayist, and commentator Andrei Codrescu philosopher Emil Cioran writer and film director Petru Popescu sculptor Constantin Brancusi and historian of religion Mircea Eliade. Tristan Tzara, a Romanian-born French poet and essayist, is known as a founder of Dada and wrote many of the first Dada texts.

Eminescu was the driving force behind a school of poetry that influenced Romanian writers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Ionesco, who gained fame while working in France, inaugurated the Theatre of the Absurd with his one-act “anti-play,” The Bald Soprano, which features his recurrent themes of self-estrangement and the difficulty of communication. Many literary works were based on Romanian ballads and folklore. Perhaps the best-known of these revolved around the vampire myth captured in the Bram Stoker novel Dracula (1897) and several later films on the subject. The character Count Dracula was based on Prince Vlad III (Vlad Țepeș [“the Impaler”]), who was the ruler of Walachia and built the fortress of Bucharest in the 13th century.

Romanian filmmaking dates to the turn of the 20th century, and the country’s first feature film, Independence of Romania, was made in 1912. The National Cinematographic Office was set up in the 1930s. Following World War II and the nationalization of the industry, three large studios were constructed (one for making feature films, one for documentaries, and another for animation), and in the following decades Romania produced many films. Several prominent Romanian directors, including Liviu Ciulei, Lucian Pintilie, and Andrei Serban, moved effortlessly between film and theatre. The expense involved in film production and the limited amount of government support after 1989, however, significantly reduced Romania’s film output in the 1990s.

In the early 21st century, filmmaking in Romania underwent a resurgence. Foreign productions began to make use of the extensive facilities developed at Castle Film Studios near Bucharest, and, following the international success of director Cristi Puiu’s Smrt gospoda Lazarescuja (2005), critics began trumpeting the “Romanian New Wave” in filmmaking. Other films by Romanian directors that were widely praised include Cătălin Mitulescu’s The Way I Spent the End of the World (2006), Corneliu Porumboiu’s 12:08 East of Bucharest (2006), and Cristian Mungiu’s 4 mesece, 3 tedne in 2 dni (2007) and Beyond the Hills (2012).

In the early years of the communist period, strident Socialist Realism was mandated for all the arts in Romania. By 1965 communist authorities had lifted certain restrictions, but no work that unabashedly criticized the regime was allowed those who wished to enjoy full honours and privileges of citizenship rendered homage to the communist state and its leaders.

Romanian architecture stagnated during the communist period its most famous structures were stale reproductions of the Soviet style referred to as “wedding cake,” or Stalinist Gothic. The best-known of these were the Casa Scînteii (“House of the Free Press,” constructed 1952–57) and the Palatul Parlamentului (“Palace of Parliament,” 1984–89), longtime communist ruler Nicolae Ceaușescu’s creation and one of the largest buildings in the world, requiring the clearing of large areas of downtown Bucharest.

By adopting the Soviet style, the Romanian government turned its back on two quite distinctive native Romanian architectural traditions. The first was a national style associated with the late 19th- and early 20th-century architects Ion Mincu and brothers Grigore Cerchez and Cristofi Cerchez, who modernized the 17th-century Brâncoveanu style, with its characteristic floral motifs and stone sculptures. The second tradition was that of interwar modernism, which flourished particularly in Bucharest and drew attention to the accomplishments of such architects as George Matei Cantacuzino, Horia Creanga, and Marcel Jancu. Buildings in this style include the Library of the Romanian Academy and the former Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Bucharest, along with the Hotel Bellona in Eforie.

Following the revolution of 1989, the Romanian state made no demands on its artists, but the confusion of the past and the difficulties of transition turned the attention of many intellectuals and artists away from the humanities and fine arts and toward history, journalism, economics, and political science.


Daily Life in the Ancient World

A statue of Herodotus, in the Austrian Parliament, who is considered as one of the first to show interest in the others or the daily life of the ancient world.
(Image: TasfotoNl/Shutterstock)

Herodotus, the First Ethnographer

Herodotus, the Greek historian, has been called both “the father of history” and “the father of lies”, but he was also the father of anthropology and ethnography.

In other words, of the writers whose works have come down to us, he’s the first one to show an interest in what historians and anthropologists call “ the other ” . He was fascinated by how different peoples lived and how they observed different customs.

Herodotus demonstrated his deep respect for cultural differences in an anecdote involving the Persian king Darius. Darius asked some Greeks, who traditionally cremated their dead, what he would have to pay them to eat the corpses of their dead fathers. “Ye gods!” they exclaimed, utterly gobsmacked. “Don’t even mention such a thing.”

Next, he turned to some people from India who piously consumed the flesh of their deceased relatives and asked them what he would have to pay them to burn the corpses of their dead fathers. “Ye gods!” they exclaimed, equally gobsmacked. “Don’t even mention such a thing.” Which all goes to prove, as Herodotus concluded that, “Custom—or as we might call it ‘culture’—is king of all.”

To je prepis iz video serije Druga stran zgodovine: vsakdanje življenje v starem svetu. Watch it now, Wondrium.

The Effect of Environment in Determining Daily Lives and Civilizations

As we look into the lives and livelihoods of men and women who never made headline news, we’ll notice several themes that recur again and again. First, we’ll discover that environment heavily influences the quality and potential of human life, and by extension, the quality and potential of human society. We will see how rivers, a mountainous landscape surrounded by the sea, a peninsula, and finally an island have given shape to the lives of those who lived in such environments. And in some cases they did more than just giving shape to life, they enabled humans to prosper and to flourish.

Egypt would not have produced the world’s first civilization were it not for the regularity and the beneficence of the annual flooding of the Nile, which, for those who settled beside its banks, gave life some predictability for the first time in human history.

Human Life in the Ancient World

It goes without saying that human life was very fragile in the ancient and medieval worlds. Famine, disease, and warfare were much more prevalent throughout the period than they are today in the West and were experienced by people at all levels of society.

Attic funerary stele, from 350/330 B.C., showing a seated woman dying during childbirth. (Giovanni Dall’Orto/CC BY-SA 3.0/Public domain)

Imagine having to dispose of your loved one—say, your parent, or your wife, or your child—at the time of the Black Death by dumping the body out of a second-floor window onto a cart already heaped with corpses. It wasn’t that you were disrespectful. You had no alternative. You lived at the edge. In fact, what you had to do was made so much worse by the fact that you were deeply religious. Or imagine being a child whose family has been wiped out by that terrible scourge, having to beg in the streets for scraps thrown at you from a distance to keep you at bay.

Add to this the fact that infant mortality in all of the societies we shall be talking about was perhaps as high as 25–30 percent. This means that every woman went into labor knowing that the life of the child she carried was at grave risk, and further that she herself stood a very good chance of dying in childbirth.

Correspondingly, life expectancy was much lower for the vast majority of people in every pre-industrial society. The men and women we’ll be talking about typically could expect to live to the age of 35–40. A consequence of this is that people tended to age much more quickly than we do today and also that they became afflicted by debilitating physiological conditions much earlier in life.

We will also discover that the subjugation of one group to another is a constant feature in all periods of human history. Prisoners of war, as well as debtors, were enslaved. People were born into slavery. The disenfranchised, like the medieval peasantry, were forced to serve in the army and pay crippling taxes. Entire peoples like the Jews were passed from one imperial power to another. The scale of human subjugation and degradation throughout history is barely imaginable, as is the depth of misery that it produced.

It’s estimated, for instance, that Julius Caesar in his conquest of Gaul enslaved nearly half a million people. Half a million! And each one of them was an individual. It’s probably fair to state that there were as many enslaved people living in the Roman Empire as there were free people.

And what the Romans did was no different, other than in scale, from what the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and others did.

The remains of slaves left behind when Vesuvius erupted, showing us the glimpses of the often less covered side of daily life in the ancient world. (Image: Travelling2Bprecise/Shutterstock)

And yet, despite all the turmoil and discontinuities at all periods of history, it has rarely been the case that one civilization has completely obliterated another or—to use a modern phrase—bombed it back into the Stone Age. Rather, there has been some degree of assimilation and acculturation on both sides—that of oppressor and oppressed. For instance, the many invasions that Britain experienced, each one of which did not obliterate but transformed, even enhanced, the one before it.

That’s an important fact. First because when we talk about the invasion of one country by a different set of people, for instance, we should bear in mind that not everyone’s life is turned upside down. But also because there is an indomitability to the routines of daily life—to the ways people prepare food, dress, entertain themselves, or think about their gods. So daily life itself tends to become richer as time passes, because ordinary people cling to and pass along their preferences and routines, as well as acquiring new ones along the way.

The Effects of Mentalité in Daily Lives and Civilizations

It’s what French historians called mentalité, a people’s mindset and the harsh facts of their existence help shape what their daily life is like. In the modern West, our actions are guided by a mindset that includes such values as respect for individual liberty, equality between men and women, and human rights for all.

That mindset has a dramatic effect on our daily lives. It influences the way that we dress, how we speak to each other, raise our children, choose our politicians. Needless to say, our particular mindset would not have been shared even remotely by the ancient Greeks, whom we often revere as the founders of democracy, since the Greeks judged women to be politically and legally incompetent. And their democracy was made possible both by slavery and—in the case of the Athenians, generally the most admired Greeks of all—by the subjection of other Greeks, whom they forced to pay tribute.

Common Questions about Daily Life in the Ancient World

For the ancient world or historical era, 3000 B.C. is taken as the beginning, the period for which we have written evidence. The period before the historical era is called the prehistoric era.

Ancient history generally covers all continents and regions inhabited by humans from the 3000 B.C.–A.D. 500 period.

History helps us understand what really happened in the world before our birth. It also helps us explain why things are the way they are.

History offers a repository of information regarding how people and societies behave . History’s purpose is to help us analyze the present with an eye on the past to not repeat the same mistakes.


Roman Army and Government

The Roman Army Large illustrated sections on Roman army life and structure
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Roman Army Illustrated pages of formations, daily life, fort and much more information on the Ancient Roman Legions.
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The Roman Legions Very complete site on Roman Military including explanations and timelines of major campaigns, pictures of armor, and much more.
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Equipment of Roman Legions,Armor, 1, 2, 3 and Centurion Page Well illustrated page of equipment for Roman soldiers
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Large Weapons of Rome Ballista, Catapulta and Trebuchet
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Roman Technology One page essay on aqueducts and Roman sewers
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Roman Government Three essays on Roman government development
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Twelve Tables Bases of early Roman law
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Zaključek

The value of history cannot be underestimated. The study of history is not irrelevant as some people project it to be. We don’t have to live in the past, but we can definitely do better by learning from it and using the lessons learnt to lead more meaningful lives.

History plays a critical role in promoting one’s intellectual growth and development. Let’s learn to embrace our history, learn from the mistakes our ancestors made, appreciate their achievements and have fun while discovering more.


Poglej si posnetek: Jelka Piškurić: Ne bom pozabil na stare čase: spomini na vsakdanje življenje v socializmu (December 2022).

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