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Začne se sojenje v Nürnbergu

Začne se sojenje v Nürnbergu

Štiriindvajset visokih nacistov se sodi v Nürnbergu v Nemčiji zaradi grozodejstev, storjenih med drugo svetovno vojno.

Nürnberške procese je vodilo mednarodno sodišče, ki so ga sestavljali predstavniki ZDA, Sovjetske zveze, Francije in Velike Britanije. To je bilo prvo tovrstno sojenje v zgodovini, obtoženci pa so se soočili z obtožbami, ki segajo od zločinov proti miru, vojnih zločinov do zločinov proti človeštvu. Lord Justice Geoffrey Lawrence, britanski član, je vodil postopek, ki je trajal 10 mesecev in je obsegal 216 sodnih sej.

1. oktobra 1946 je bilo 12 arhitektov nacistične politike obsojenih na smrt. Sedem drugih je bilo obsojenih na zaporne kazni od 10 let do življenja, trije pa so bili oproščeni. Od prvotnih 24 obtožencev je eden, Robert Ley, v zaporu storil samomor, drugi, Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, pa je bil duševno in fizično nesposoben za sojenje. Med obsojenimi na smrt zaradi obešanja so bili nacistični minister za zunanje zadeve Joachim von Ribbentrop; Hermann Goering, vodja Gestapa in Luftwaffeja; Alfred Jodl, vodja štaba nemških oboroženih sil; in Wilhelm Frick, minister za notranje zadeve.

16. oktobra je bilo obešeno 10 arhitektov nacistične politike. Goering, ki so ga ob obsodbi imenovali "vodilni vojni agresor in ustvarjalec zatiralskega programa proti Judom", je na predvečer predvidene usmrtitve storil samomor s strupom. Vodja nacistične stranke Martin Bormann je bil v odsotnosti obsojen na smrt (zdaj pa naj bi umrl maja 1945). Sojenja manjšim nemškim in osnim vojnim zločincem so se v Nemčiji nadaljevala v petdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in povzročila obsodbo 5.025 drugih obtožencev ter 806 usmrtitev.

PREBERITE ŠE: 10 stvari, ki jih o nürnberških procesih morda ne veste


Nürnberški proces in sojenje o vojnih zločinih v Tokiu (1945–1948)

Po drugi svetovni vojni so zmagovite zavezniške vlade ustanovile prva mednarodna kazenska sodišča za pregon visokih političnih uradnikov in vojaških oblasti zaradi vojnih zločinov in drugih grozodejstev v času vojne. Štiri velike zavezniške sile - Francija, Sovjetska zveza, Združeno kraljestvo in Združene države - so v Nürnbergu v Nemčiji ustanovile Mednarodno vojaško sodišče (IMT) za pregon in kaznovanje "glavnih vojnih zločincev evropske osi". IMT je vodil kombinirano sojenje višjim nacističnim političnim in vojaškim voditeljem ter več nacističnim organizacijam. Manj znano mednarodno vojaško sodišče za Daljni vzhod (IMTFE) je bilo ustanovljeno v Tokiu na Japonskem v skladu z razglasitvijo generala ameriške vojske Douglasa MacArthurja leta 1946, vrhovnega poveljnika zavezniških sil na okupirani Japonski. IMTFE je vodil vrsto sojenj nad visokimi japonskimi političnimi in vojaškimi voditelji v skladu s svojimi pooblastili "za poskus kaznovanja vojnih zločincev Daljnega vzhoda".

Izvor, sestava in pristojnost razsodišč v Nürnbergu in Tokiu so se v več pomembnih pogledih razlikovali od geografskih razlik in osebnosti. Načrti za pregon nemških političnih in vojaških voditeljev so bili objavljeni v deklaraciji sv. Jakoba iz leta 1942. V izjavi so se Združene države pridružile Avstraliji, Kanadi, Kitajski, Indiji, Novi Zelandiji, Južnoafriški zvezi, Sovjetski zvezi in devetim izgnanim vladam držav, okupiranih z Nemčijo, da bi obsodile nemško "agresivno politiko". V deklaraciji je zapisano, da so te vlade "med svoje glavne vojne cilje postavile kaznovanje po kanalu organiziranega pravosodja za tiste, ki so krivi za te zločine ali so odgovorni za njih, ne glede na to, ali so jih naročili, jih zagrešili ali v njih sodelovali".

Avgusta 1945 so zato štiri velike zavezniške sile podpisale Londonski sporazum iz leta 1945, ki je ustanovil IMT. Naslednje dodatne države so se nato "pridružile" sporazumu in izrazile svojo podporo: Avstralija, Belgija, Češkoslovaška, Danska, Etiopija, Grčija, Haiti, Honduras, Indija, Luksemburg, Nizozemska, Nova Zelandija, Norveška, Panama, Paragvaj, Poljska, Urugvaj in Jugoslavija.

Listina Mednarodnega vojaškega sodišča (ali Nürnberška listina) je bila priložena Londonskemu sporazumu iz leta 1945 in je opisovala ustavo, funkcije in pristojnosti sodišča. Sodišče v Nürnbergu je sestavljalo po enega sodnika iz vsake od zavezniških sil, od katerih je vsaka vključila tudi tožilstvo. Nürnberška listina je določala tudi, da je IMT pooblaščen za kaznovanje oseb, ki so "storile katero od naslednjih kaznivih dejanj:"

  • (a) Zločini proti miru: načrtovanje, priprava, začetek ali vodenje agresivne vojne ali vojne v nasprotju z mednarodnimi pogodbami, sporazumi ali zagotovili ali sodelovanje v skupnem načrtu ali zaroti za uresničitev katerega koli od prej omenjeno
  • (b) Vojni zločini: kršitve zakonov ali običajev vojne. Takšne kršitve vključujejo, vendar niso omejene na, umor, zlorabo ali deportacijo na suženjsko delo ali za kakršen koli drug namen civilnega prebivalstva na okupiranem ozemlju ali na njem, umor ali slabo ravnanje z vojnimi ujetniki ali osebami na morju, pobijanje talcev, ropanje javne ali zasebne lastnine, bezobzirno uničenje mest, krajev ali vasi ali opustošenje, ki ga vojaška nuja ne upravičuje
  • (c) zločini proti človeštvu: umor, iztrebljanje, zasužnjevanje, deportacija in druga nečloveška dejanja, storjena proti kateremu koli civilnemu prebivalstvu pred vojno ali med njo, ali preganjanja na politični, rasni ali verski podlagi v okviru usmrtitve ali v zvezi z njo kakršno koli kaznivo dejanje v pristojnosti Sodišča, ne glede na to, ali krši domačo zakonodajo države, v kateri je bilo storjeno.

Tožilci IMT so obtožili dvaindvajset višjih nemških političnih in vojaških voditeljev, med njimi Hermanna Goeringa, Rudolpha Hessa, Joachima von Ribbentropa, Alfreda Rosenberga in Alberta Speerja. Nacistični vodja Adolf Hitler ni bil obtožen, ker je storil samomor aprila 1945, v zadnjih dneh pred predajo Nemčije. Obtoženo je bilo tudi sedem nacističnih organizacij. Tožilci so si prizadevali, da bi razsodišče razglasilo, da so te organizacije "kriminalne organizacije", da bi olajšali kasnejši pregon njihovih članov na drugih sodiščih ali sodiščih.

Nürnberški proces je trajal od novembra 1945 do oktobra 1946. Sodišče je razsodilo devetnajst posameznih obtožencev in jih obsodilo na kazni, ki so segale od smrti z obešanjem do petnajst let zapora. Trije obtoženci so bili spoznani za nedolžne, eden je storil samomor pred sojenjem, eden pa ni bil sojen zaradi telesnih ali duševnih bolezni. Sodišče v Nürnbergu je tudi zaključilo, da so bile tri od sedmih obtoženih nacističnih organizacij "kriminalne organizacije" v skladu s pogoji Listine: Vodstveni zbor nacistične stranke elitna enota "SS", ki je izvajala prisilno premestitev, zasužnjevanje in iztrebljanje milijonov ljudi v koncentracijskih taboriščih ter nacistična varnostna policija in nacistična tajna policija, splošno znana kot "SD" in "Gestapo", ki so uvedli programe suženjskega dela in izgnali Jude, politične nasprotnike in druge civiliste v koncentracijo taborišča.

Za razliko od IMT IMTFE ni bil ustanovljen z mednarodnim sporazumom, vendar je vseeno izšel iz mednarodnih sporazumov za sojenje japonskim vojnim zločincem. Julija 1945 so Kitajska, Združeno kraljestvo in Združene države podpisale Potsdamsko deklaracijo, v kateri so od Japonske zahtevale "brezpogojno predajo" in navedle, da bodo "strogi sodniki deležni vseh vojnih zločincev". V času podpisa Potsdamske deklaracije se je vojna v Evropi končala, vojna z Japonsko pa se je nadaljevala. Sovjetska zveza je podpisala deklaracijo, ker je Japonski napovedala vojno šele nekaj tednov kasneje, na isti dan, ko so Združene države odvrgle drugo atomsko bombo na Nagasaki. Japonska se je predala šest dni kasneje, 14. avgusta 1945.

Na naslednji moskovski konferenci decembra 1945 so se Sovjetska zveza, Združeno kraljestvo in ZDA (s soglasjem Kitajske) dogovorile o osnovni strukturi za okupacijo Japonske. General MacArthur je kot vrhovni poveljnik zavezniških sil dobil pooblastilo za "izdajanje vseh ukazov za izvajanje Predaje, okupacijo in nadzor Japonske ter vse direktive, ki jih dopolnjujejo".

Januarja 1946 je general MacArthur v skladu s temi pooblastili izdal posebno razglas, ki je ustanovil IMTFE. Listini za Mednarodno vojaško sodišče za Daljni vzhod je bila priložena razglasitev. Tako kot Nürnberška listina je določila sestavo, pristojnost in funkcije razsodišča.

Listina je predvidevala, da MacArthur imenuje sodnike v IMTFE iz držav, ki so podpisale japonski instrument predaje: Avstralije, Kanade, Kitajske, Francije, Indije, Nizozemske, Filipinov, Sovjetske zveze, Združenega kraljestva in Združenih držav. Vsaka od teh držav je imela tudi tožilstvo.

Tako kot pri IMT je bila IMTFE pristojna za sojenje posameznikom za zločine proti miru, vojne zločine in zločine proti človeštvu, opredelitve pa so bile skoraj dobesedno tiste, ki jih vsebuje Nürnberška listina. IMTFE je bil kljub temu pristojen za zločine, ki so se zgodili v daljšem časovnem obdobju, od japonske invazije na Mandžurijo leta 1931 do predaje Japonske leta 1945.

IMTFE je vodil pregon devet visokih japonskih političnih voditeljev in osemnajst vojaških voditeljev. Obtožen je bil tudi japonski učenjak, ki pa je bil med sojenjem umaknjen, ker je bil zaradi duševne bolezni razglašen za neprimernega. Japonski cesar Hirohito in drugi člani cesarske družine niso bili obtoženi. Dejansko so zavezniške sile dovolile Hirohitu, da ohrani svoj položaj na prestolu, čeprav z zmanjšanim statusom.

Sojenje o vojnih zločinih v Tokiu je potekalo od maja 1946 do novembra 1948. IMTFE je vse preostale obtožene spoznal za krive in jih obsodil na kazni od smrti do sedem let zapora, dva obtoženca pa sta med sojenjem umrla.

Po sojenju za vojne zločine v Nürnbergu in Tokiu so potekala dodatna sojenja za sojenje "manjšim" vojnim zločincem. Ta kasnejša sojenja pa niso vodila mednarodna sodišča, temveč domača sodišča ali sodišča, ki jih vodi ena sama zavezniška sila, na primer vojaške komisije. V Nemčiji so na primer vsaka od zavezniških sil vodila sojenja za domnevne vojne zločince, ki so jih našli na svojih območjih okupacije. Združene države so med letoma 1945 in 1949 izvedle dvanajst tovrstnih sojenj, od katerih je vsak združeval obtožene, ki so bili obtoženi podobnih dejanj ali so sodelovali v povezanih dogodkih. Ta preskušanja so potekala tudi v Nürnbergu in so tako postala neuradno znana kot "naslednja sojenja v Nürnbergu". Na Japonskem je potekalo več dodatnih poskusov v mestih zunaj Tokia.

Sodišča v Nürnbergu in Tokiu so znatno prispevala k razvoju mednarodnega kazenskega prava, takrat v povojih. Ta sodišča so več desetletij veljala za edina primera mednarodnih sodišč za vojne zločine, vendar so nazadnje služila kot vzorci za novo vrsto mednarodnih kazenskih sodišč, ki so bila ustanovljena v devetdesetih letih. Poleg tega je sklicevanje Nürnberške listine na "zločine proti miru", "vojne zločine" in "zločine proti človeštvu" prvič uporabljeno in opredeljeno v sprejetem mednarodnem instrumentu. Ti izrazi in opredelitve so bili skoraj dobesedno sprejeti v Listini IMTFE, vendar so bili od takrat ponovljeni in razširjeni v vrsti mednarodnih pravnih instrumentov.


1747: Sojenje Jakobu Lindu in skorbutu

James Lind velja za prvega zdravnika, ki je izvedel kontrolirano klinično preskušanje sodobne dobe. 1 – 4 Dr Lind (1716-94), medtem ko je delal kot kirurg na ladji, je bil zgrožen nad visoko smrtnostjo skorbuta med mornarji. Načrtoval je primerjalno preskušanje najbolj obetavnega zdravila za skorbut. 1 – 4 Njegov jasen opis sojenja zajema bistvene elemente nadzorovanega sojenja.

Lind opisuje “ ” 20. maja 1747 sem izbral dvanajst bolnikov v skorbutu na krovu morja Salisbury. Njihovi primeri so bili podobni, kot bi jih lahko imel jaz. Na splošno so imeli vsi gnile dlesni, lise in šibkost, s šibkostjo kolen. Ležali so skupaj na enem mestu in bili primerno stanovanje za bolnike v pritličju in imeli eno skupno prehrano za vse, tj. vodna kaša, sladkana z sladkorjem, zjutraj pogosto sveža ovčja juha, pogosto za večerjo, drugič lahki pudingi, kuhani piškoti s sladkorjem itd., za večerjo pa ječmen in rozine, riž in ribez, sago in vino ali podobno. Dva sta bila naročena vsak po liter litra na dan. Dva druga sta trikrat na dan vzela petindvajset kapljic eliksir vitriola … Dva druga sta vzela dve žlici kisa trikrat na dan … Dva najslabša pacienta sta dobila na tečaj morske vode … Dva druga vsak dan sta jim dajali po dve pomaranči in eno limono pomaranč in limon, eden od tistih, ki so jih vzeli, saj je bil ob koncu šestih dni sposoben za opravljanje službe##x02026 Drugi je bil najbolje ozdravljen od vseh v svojem stanju in … je bil imenovan za spremljanje preostalih bolnikov. Poleg pomaranč sem mislil, da ima cyder najboljše učinke … ” (Dr James Lind's “Treatise on Scurvy ”, objavljeno v Edinburghu leta 1753)

Čeprav so bili rezultati jasni, je Lind okleval in priporočil uporabo pomaranč in limon, ker so bile predrage. 3 Minilo je skoraj 50 let, preden je britanska mornarica na koncu postala limonin sok obvezen del prehrane pomorščakov, kmalu pa ga je nadomestil limetin sok, ker je bil cenejši.

Lindov traktat iz leta 1953, ki je bil napisan, medtem ko je bil prebivalec v Edinburghu in sodelavec Kraljevega zdravniškega kolidža, ne vsebuje le njegovega znanega opisa kontroliranega preskušanja, ki kaže, da so bile pomaranče in limone dramatično boljše od drugih načinov zdravljenja bolezni, ampak tudi sistematičen pregled prejšnje literature o skorbutu. 5

Leta 2003 je Royal College of Physicians ustanovila knjižnico James Lind v spomin na 250. obletnico objave pionirskega prispevka dr. Lind “Treact on Scurvy ”. Knjižnica Jamesa Lind (www.jameslindlibrary.org) je bila ustvarjena za izboljšanje splošnega in strokovnega znanja javnosti o poštenih testih zdravljenja v zdravstvu in njihovi zgodovini. 5 Ta knjižnica je spletna stran (www.jameslindlibrary.org), ki obiskovalce seznani z načeli poštenih preizkusov zdravljenja z vrsto kratkih ilustriranih esejev. Leta 2003 je Scientific American knjižnici podelil spletno nagrado Sci/Tech. Zaradi publicitete in priljubljenosti knjižnice Jamesa Linda je bil 20. maj razglašen za mednarodni dan kliničnih preskušanj, saj se je na ta dan leta 1747 začelo slavno nadzorovano preskušanje Jamesa Linda.


Sojenje nacistom v Nürnbergu: sodbe in rezultati

Za prvo sojenje je bilo obtoženih 24 uradnikov in voditeljev nacistične vlade. Na žalost so številni najvišji nacistični uradniki (vključno z Adolfom Hitlerjem, Heinrichom Himmlerjem in Josephom Goebbelsom) ob koncu vojne naredili samomor, zato jim ni sodilo.

Sojenje je bilo šokantno. Tu so svet, ko so bili predstavljeni dokazi, resnično spoznali obseg nacističnih grozodejstev (vključno z žrtvami holokavsta). Sojenje je trajalo 10 mesecev, preden so se sodniki odločili.

Na koncu je bilo 24 obsojenih moških 12 obsojenih na smrt, 7 na različne dolžine zapora, 3 so bili oproščeni, 2 pa nista bila odločena. Eno od odločitev brez, je dobil Robert Ley (vodja nemške fronte dela), ki je dan pred začetkom sojenja storil samomor.

Nürnberški poskusi so bili prelomni trenutek v zgodovini. Brez tega sodobna mednarodna sodišča in sodišča ZN morda nikoli ne bi bila zasnovana.


Začne se sojenje v Nürnbergu - ZGODOVINA

Sodba v Nürnbergu (1961)

Leta 1948 je ameriško sodišče v okupirani Nemčiji sodilo štirim nacističnim sodnikom za vojne zločine.
Holokavst

The Nürnberški procesi so bile vrste vojaških sodišč, ki so jih vodile zavezniške sile v drugi svetovni vojni, najbolj opazne pa so bile zaradi pregona uglednih članov političnega, vojaškega in gospodarskega vodstva nacistične Nemčije. Sojenja so potekala v mestu Nürnberg. Prvo in najbolj znano od teh sojenj, ki jih je Norman Birkett, eden od britanskih sodnikov, ki so mu predsedovali, opisal kot “ [t] največji proces v zgodovini ”, je bilo sojenje velikim vojnim zločincem pred mednarodno vojsko Razsodišče (IMT). Sodišče je med 20. novembrom 1945 in 1. oktobrom 1946 dobilo nalogo, da sodi 23 najpomembnejšim političnim in vojaškim voditeljem tretjega rajha, čeprav so sodili enemu od obtoženih Martinu Bormannu v odsotnosti, medtem ko je drugi, Robert Ley, storil samomor v enem tednu od začetka sojenja. Niso vključeni Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler in Joseph Goebbels, ki so vsi naredili samomor nekaj mesecev pred podpisom obtožnice. Drugi niz sojenj manjšim vojnim zločincem je bil izveden v skladu z zakonom št. 10 Nadzornega sveta na vojaških sodiščih v Nürnbergu (NMT), med njimi so bili zdravniki in#8217 sojenje ter sodniki#8217. Ta članek obravnava predvsem IMT, za podrobnosti o teh preskušanjih glejte Naknadna sojenja v Nürnbergu.

Predvidevam, da so bili možni trije načini: pustiti nekaznovana grozodejstva, da storilce usmrtijo ali kaznujejo z izvršilnimi ukrepi ali pa jim sodijo. Kaj naj bi to bilo? Ali je bilo mogoče dovoliti, da takšna grozodejstva ostanejo nekaznovana? Ali bi lahko Francija, Rusija, Nizozemska, Belgija, Norveška, Češkoslovaška, Poljska ali Jugoslavija privolile v takšno pot? … Ne smemo pozabiti, da je Nemčija po prvi svetovni vojni izročila domnevne zločince in kakšna farsa je bila to! Večina se je umaknila in izrečene kazni so bile posmehljive in so bile kmalu odpuščene.

Nürnberški procesi. Obtoženci na zatožni klopi. Glavni cilj tožilstva je bil Hermann Göring (na levem robu v prvi vrsti klopi), ki je veljal za najpomembnejšega preživelega uradnika v tretjem rajhu po smrti Hitlerja#8217.

Precedens za sojenje obtoženim vojnih zločinov je bil postavljen ob koncu prve svetovne vojne na sojenju za vojne zločine v Leipzigu, ki je potekalo od maja do julija 1921 pred Reichsgericht (Nemško vrhovno sodišče) v Leipzigu, čeprav so bili le -ti v zelo omejenem obsegu in so v veliki meri veljali za neučinkovite. V začetku leta 1940 je poljska vlada v izgnanstvu prosila britansko in francosko vlado, naj obsodijo nemško invazijo na njihovo državo. Britanci tega sprva niso hoteli storiti, aprila 1940 pa je bila izdana skupna britansko-francosko-poljska deklaracija. Relativno nežno zaradi anglo-francoskih pridržkov je trojico razglasilo za željo po uradnem in javnem protestu vesti sveta proti dejanjem nemške vlade, za katero morajo odgovoriti za te zločine, ki ne morejo ostati nekaznovani . ”

Tri leta in pol kasneje je bila navedena namera kaznovanja Nemcev precej bolj ostra. 1. novembra 1943 so Sovjetska zveza, Združeno kraljestvo in Združene države objavile svojo “Deklaracijo o nemških grozotah v okupirani Evropi ”, ki je dala “polno opozorilo ”, da bodo zavezniki, ko bodo poraženi nacisti, zavezniki bi jih “ preganjali do skrajnih koncev sveta …, da bi bilo mogoče doseči pravico. … Zgornja izjava ne posega v primer večjih vojnih zločincev, katerih kazniva dejanja nimajo posebne geografske lege in bodo kaznovani s skupno odločbo vlade zaveznikov. ponovljeno na jaltski konferenci in v Berlinu leta 1945.

Dokumenti britanskega vojnega kabineta, objavljeni 2. januarja 2006, so pokazali, da je kabinet že decembra 1944 razpravljal o njihovi politiki kaznovanja vodilnih nacistov, če bodo ujeti. Britanski premier Winston Churchill je takrat zagovarjal politiko skrajšane usmrtitve v nekaterih okoliščinah, pri čemer je z izogibanjem zakonskim oviram uporabil zakon o napadu, ki so ga od tega odvrnili šele pogovori z voditelji ZDA in Sovjetske zveze pozneje v vojni.

Konec leta 1943 je med tristransko večerjo na teheranski konferenci sovjetski voditelj Joseph Stalin predlagal usmrtitev 50.000–100.000 nemških častnikov. Ameriški predsednik Franklin D. Roosevelt se je pošalil, da bi bilo morda 49.000. Churchill, ki je menil, da so resni, je obsodil zamisel o hladnokrvni usmrtitvi vojakov, ki so se borili za svojo državo, in da bi ga raje odpeljali na dvorišče in ustrelili, kot da bi sodeloval pri katerem koli takšno dejanje. Izjavil pa je tudi, da morajo vojni zločinci plačati za svoje zločine in da jih je treba v skladu z moskovskim dokumentom, ki ga je napisal sam, soditi na krajih, kjer so bili zločini storjeni. Churchill je odločno nasprotoval usmrtitvam v politične namene. ” Po zapisniku srečanja Roosevelta in Stalina na Jalti 4. februarja 1945 v palači Livadia je predsednik Roosevelt rekel, da je bil zelo udarjen zaradi obsega nemškega uničenja na Krimu in zato je bil Nemcev bolj krvoločen kot pred letom dni, in upal je, da bo maršal Stalin znova nazdravil usmrtitvi 50.000 častnikov nemške vojske. ”

Ameriški minister za finance Henry Morgenthau, Jr., je predlagal načrt za popolno denacifikacijo Nemčije, ki je bil znan kot Morgenthauov načrt. Načrt je zagovarjal prisilno deindustrializacijo Nemčije in skrajšano usmrtitev tako imenovanih “arh-kriminalcev ”, torej največjih vojnih zločincev. Roosevelt je sprva podprl ta načrt in uspel prepričati Churchilla, naj ga podpre v manj drastični obliki. Kasneje so podrobnosti pricurljale v javnost, kar je sprožilo množičen protest. Roosevelt, ki se je zavedal hudega neodobravanja javnosti, je načrt opustil, vendar o tem ni sprejel nadomestnega stališča. Propad načrta Morgenthau je ustvaril potrebo po alternativni metodi spopadanja z nacističnim vodstvom. Načrt za "sojenje evropskim vojnim zločincem" sta pripravila vojni sekretar Henry L. Stimson in vojno ministrstvo. Po Rooseveltovi smrti aprila 1945 je novi predsednik Harry S. Truman močno odobril sodni postopek. Po vrsti pogajanj med Veliko Britanijo, ZDA, Sovjetsko zvezo in Francijo so bile podrobnosti sojenja določene. Preiskave naj bi se začele 20. novembra 1945 v bavarskem mestu Nürnberg.

Ustanovitev sodišč

14. januarja 1942 so se predstavniki devetih držav, ki jih je okupirala Nemčija, sestali v Londonu, da bi pripravili osnutek zavezniške resolucije o nemških vojnih zločinih. Na sestankih v Teheranu (1943), Jalti (1945) in Potsdamu (1945) so se tri velike vojne sile, Združeno kraljestvo, Združene države in Sovjetska zveza, dogovorile o obliki kaznovanja tistih, ki so med vojnimi zločini med Druga svetovna vojna. Tudi mesto na sodišču je dobilo Francijo. Pravna podlaga za sojenje je bila določena z Londonsko listino, o kateri so se štiri tako imenovane velike sile dogovorile 8. avgusta 1945 in je sojenje omejilo na “ kaznovanje velikih vojnih zločincev v državah evropske osi &# 8221.

V Nürnbergu je bilo sodilo okoli 200 nemškim obtožencem vojnih zločinov, 1600 drugim pa tradicionalnim vojaškim pravilom. Pravna podlaga za pristojnost sodišča je bila tista, ki jo opredeljuje instrument o predaji Nemčije. Politična oblast za Nemčijo je bila prenesena na Zavezniški nadzorni svet, ki se je s suvereno oblastjo nad Nemčijo lahko odločil za kaznovanje kršitev mednarodnega prava in zakonov vojne. Ker je bilo sodišče omejeno na kršitve vojnih zakonov, ni bilo pristojno za zločine, ki so se zgodili pred izbruhom vojne 1. septembra 1939.

Leipzig in Luksemburg sta bila na kratko obravnavana kot kraj sojenja. Sovjetska zveza je želela, da bi sojenja potekala v Berlinu kot glavnem mestu ‘fašističnih zarotnikov,#Nuremberg pa je bil izbran za kraj iz dveh razlogov, pri čemer je bil prvi odločilni dejavnik:

  1. Palača pravosodja je bila prostorna in v veliki meri nepoškodovana (ena redkih stavb, ki je ostala v veliki meri nedotaknjena zaradi obsežnega bombardiranja zavezniških sil v Nemčiji), v sklopu kompleksa pa je bil tudi velik zapor.
  2. Nürnberg je veljal za slovesno rojstno mesto nacistične stranke. Gostil je vsakoletne propagandne shode stranke in sejo Reichstaga, ki je sprejela nürnberške zakone. Tako je veljal za primeren kraj za označbo simbolnega propada zabave.

Kot kompromis s Sovjeti je bilo dogovorjeno, da bo mesto sojenja Nürnberg, a uradni dom oblasti sodišča v Berlinu. Dogovorjeno je bilo tudi, da bo Francija postala stalni sedež IMT in da bo prvo sojenje (predvidenih je bilo več) v Nürnbergu.

Večina obtoženih je bila že pridržana v taborišču Ashcan, predelovalni postaji in zaslišalnem centru v Luksemburgu, nato pa so jih na sojenje preselili v Nürnberg.

Udeleženci

Vsaka od štirih držav je zagotovila enega sodnika in namestnika ter tožilca.

    Generalmajor Iona Nikitchenko (sovjetski glavni) podpolkovnik Alexander Volchkov (namestnik Sovjetske zveze) polkovnik Sir Geoffrey Lawrence (glavni britanski), predsednik sodišča Sir Norman Birkett (britanski namestnik) Francis Biddle (ameriški glavni) John J. Parker (ameriški namestnik) profesor Henri Donnedieu de Vabres (francoski glavni) Robert Falco (nadomestni francoski)

Glavni tožilci

Jacksonu so pomagali odvetnik Telford Taylor, Stephen E. Burgio, Thomas J. Dodd in mladi tolmač ameriške vojske Richard Sonnenfeldt. Shawcrossu sta pomagala major Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe in sir John Wheeler-Bennett. Mervyn Griffith-Jones, ki je kasneje zaslovel kot glavni tožilec v Lady Chatterley ’s Lover poskus nespodobnosti, je bil tudi v skupini Shawcross ’s. Shawcross je zaposlil tudi mladega odvetnika Anthonyja Marreca, ki je bil sin njegovega prijatelja, da bi britanski ekipi pomagal pri velikih obremenitvah.

Zagovornik

Erwin Schulz

Večina zagovornikov so bili nemški odvetniki. Med njimi so bili Georg Fröschmann, Heinz Fritz (Hans Fritzsche), Otto Pannenbecker (Wilhelm Frick), Alfred Thoma (Alfred Rosenberg), Kurt Kauffmann (Ernst Kaltenbrunner), Hans Laternser (generalštab in visoko poveljstvo), Franz Exner (Alfred Jodl), Alfred Seidl (Hans Frank), Otto Stahmer (Hermann Göring), Walter Ballas (Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach), Hans Flächsner (Albert Speer), Günther von Rohrscheidt (Rudolf Heß), Egon Kubuschok (Franz von Papen), Robert Servatius (Fritz Sauckel), Fritz Sauter (Joachim von Ribbentrop), Walther Funk (Baldur von Schirach), Hanns Marx (Julius Streicher), Otto Nelte in Herbert Kraus. Glavne svetovalce je podpiralo skupaj 70 pomočnikov, uradnikov in odvetnikov. Med pričami zagovornika je bilo več moških, ki so sodelovali v vojnih zločinih med drugo svetovno vojno, na primer Rudolph Hoess. Moški, ki so pričali v obrambo, so upali, da bodo prejeli milejšo kazen. Vsi moški, ki so pričali v imenu obrambe, so bili spoznani za krive po več točkah.

Mednarodno vojaško sodišče je bilo odprto 20. novembra 1945 v palači pravosodja v Nürnbergu. Prvo sejo je vodil sovjetski sodnik Nikitchenko. Tožilstvo je vložilo obtožnice proti 24 velikim vojnim zločincem in sedmim organizacijam - vodstvu nacistične stranke, kabinetu Reicha, Schutzstaffelu (SS), Sicherheitsdienstu (SD), Gestapu, Sturmabteilungu (SA) in generalštabu “ Visoko poveljstvo ”, ki ga sestavlja več kategorij visokih vojaških častnikov. Če bi bile spoznane za krive, bi morale biti te organizacije razglašene za kriminalce.

Obtožnice so bile za:

  1. Sodelovanje v skupnem načrtu ali zaroti za uresničitev zločina proti miru
  2. Načrtovanje, sprožanje in vodenje agresivnih vojn in drugih zločinov proti miru

24 obtoženih je bilo v zvezi z vsako obtožbo bodisi obtoženih, vendar ne obsojenih (I), obtoženih in spoznanih za krivih (G), ali pa niso bili obtoženi (-), kot jih je spodaj navedel obtoženec, obtožba in končni izid:


Novo sojenje v Nürnbergu 2021 - prosimo, delite te podatke!

Skupina več kot 1.000 odvetnikov in več kot 10.000 medicinskih strokovnjakov pod vodstvom dr. Reinerja Fuellmicha je začela sodne postopke proti CDC, WHO in skupini Davos za zločine proti človeštvu. Fuellmich in njegova ekipa predstavljata napačen test PCR in ukaz, da zdravniki vsako komorbidno smrt označijo za smrt Covid kot goljufijo. Test PCR nikoli ni bil zasnovan za odkrivanje patogenov in je pri 35 ciklih 100% napačen. Vsi testi PCR, ki jih nadzoruje CDC, so nastavljeni na 37 do 45 ciklov. CDC priznava, da za pozitiven zanesljiv rezultat niso dovoljeni nobeni preskusi v 28 ciklih. Samo to razveljavi več kot 90% domnevnih primerov covida / "okužb", ki jih spremlja ta napačen test.

Poleg pomanjkljivih testov in goljufivih potrdil o smrti samo »poskusno« cepivo krši 32. člen Ženevske konvencije. V skladu s 32. členom IV Ženevske konvencije iz leta 1949 so prepovedani "pohabljanje in medicinski ali znanstveni poskusi, ki niso potrebni zaradi zdravljenja zaščitene osebe". V skladu s 147. členom je izvajanje bioloških poskusov na zaščitenih osebah huda kršitev Konvencije.

"Poskusno" cepivo krši vseh 10 nürnberških zakonikov, ki predvidevajo smrtno kazen za tiste, ki želijo kršiti te mednarodne zakone.

"Cepivo" ne izpolnjuje naslednjih petih zahtev, ki veljajo za cepivo, in je po definiciji medicinski "poskus" in preskus:

Zagotavlja imuniteto proti virusu
To je "puščajoča" genska terapija, ki ne zagotavlja imunitete proti Covidu in trdi, da zmanjšuje simptome, vendar je dvojno cepljeno zdaj 60% bolnikov, ki potrebujejo urgenco ali intenzivno nego z okužbo s covidom.

Ščiti prejemnike pred okužbo z virusom
Ta genska terapija ne zagotavlja imunosti in dvojno cepljeno lahko še vedno ujame in širi virus.

Zmanjšuje smrt zaradi okužbe z virusom
This gene-therapy does not reduce deaths from the infection. Double-Vaccinated infected with Covid have also died.

Reduces circulation of the virus
This gene-therapy still permits the spread of the virus as it offers zero immunity to the virus.

Reduces transmission of the virus
This gene-therapy still permits the transmission of the virus as it offers zero immunity to the virus.

The following violations of the Nuremberg Code are as follows:

Nuremberg Code #1: Voluntary Consent is Essential

No person should be forced to take a medical experiment without informed consent. Many media, political and non-medical persons are telling people to take the shot. They offer no information as to the adverse effects or dangers of this gene-therapy. All you hear from them is – “ safe and effective” and “ benefits outweigh the risks.” Countries are using lockdowns, duress and threats to force people to take this vaccine or be prohibited to participate in free society under the mandate of a Vaccine Passport or Green Pass. During the Nuremberg trials, even the media was prosecuted and members were put to death for lying to the public, along with many of the doctors and Nazis found guilty of Crimes Against Humanity.

Nuremberg Code #2: Yield Fruitful Results Unprocurable By Other Means

As listed above, the gene-therapy does not meet the criteria of a vaccine and does not offer immunity to the virus. There are other medical treatments that yield fruitful results against Covid such as Ivermectin, Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc and boosted immune systems for flu and colds.

Nuremberg Code #3: Base Experiments on Results of Animal Experimentation and Natural History of Disease

This gene therapy skipped animal testing and went straight to human trials. In mRNA research that Pfizer used – a candidate study on mRNA with rhesus macaques monkeys using BNT162b2 mRNA and in that study all the monkeys developed pulmonary inflammation but the researchers considered the risk low as these were young healthy monkeys from the age of 2-4. Israel has used Pfizer and the International Court of Law has accepted a claim for 80% of the recipients having pulmonary inflammation from being injected with this gene-therapy. Despite this alarming development Pfizer proceeded to develop their mRNA for Covid without animal testing.

Nuremberg Code #4: Avoid All Unnecessary Suffering and Injury

Since the rollout of the experiment and listed under the CDC VAERS reporting system over 4,000 deaths and 50,000 vaccine injuries have been reported in America. In the EU over 7,000 deaths and 365,000 vaccine injuries have been reported. This is a grievous violation of this code.

Nuremberg Code #5: No Experiment to be Conducted if There’s Reason to Think Injury or Death Will Occur

See #4, based on fact-based medical data this gene-therapy is causing death and injury. Past research on mRNA also shows several risks that have been ignored for this current trial gene-experiment. A 2002 study on SARS-CoV-1 spike proteins showed they cause inflammation, immunopathology, blood clots, and impede Angiotensin 2 expression. This experiment forces the body to produce this spike-protein inheriting all these risks.

Nuremberg Code #6: Risk Should Never Exceed the Benefit

Covid-19 has a 98-99% recovery rate. The vaccine injuries, deaths and adverse side-effects of mRNA gene-therapy far exceed this risk. The use of “leaky” vaccines was banned for agriculture use by the US and EU due to the Marek Chicken study that shows ‘hot-viruses’ and variants emerge… making the disease even more deadly. Yet, this has been ignored for human use by the CDC knowing fully the risk of new deadlier variants emerge from leaky vaccinations. The CDC is fully aware that the use of leaky vaccines facilitates the emergence of hot (deadlier)strains. Yet they’ve ignored this when it comes to human

Nuremberg Code #7: Preparation Must Be Made Against Even Remote Possibility of Injury, Disability or Death

There were no preparations made. This gene therapy skipped animal trials. The pharmaceutical companies’ own Phase 3 human clinical trials will not conclude until 2022 /2023. These vaccines were approved under an Emergency Use only act and forced on a misinformed public. They are NOT FDA-approved.

Nuremberg Code #8: Experiment Must Be Conducted by Scientifically Qualified Persons

Politicians, media and actors claiming that this is a safe and effective vaccine are not qualified. Propaganda is not medical science. Many retail outlets such as Walmart & drive-through vaccine centers are not qualified to administer experimental medical gene-therapies to the uninformed public.

Nuremberg Code #9: Anyone Must Have the Freedom to Bring the Experiment to an End At Any Time

Despite the outcry of over 85,000 doctors, nurses, virologists and epidemiologists – the experiment is not being ended. In fact, there are currently many attempts to change laws in order to force vaccine compliance. This includes mandatory and forced vaccinations. Experimental ‘update’ shots are planned for every 6 months without any recourse to the growing number of deaths and injuries already caused by this experiment. These ‘update’ shots will be administered without any clinical trials. Hopefully this new Nuremberg Trial will put an end to this crime against humanity.

Nuremberg Code #10: The Scientist Must Bring the Experiment to an End At Any Time if There’s Probable Cause of it Resulting in Injury or Death

It is clear in the statistical reporting data that this experiment is resulting in death and injury yet all the politicians, drug companies and so-called experts are not making any attempt to stop this gene-therapy experiment from inflicting harm on a misinformed public.

What can you do to help put an end to this crime against humanity? Share this information. Hold your politicians, media, doctors and nurses accountable – that if they are complicit in this crime against humanity they too are subject to the laws set forth in the Geneva Convention and Nuremberg Code and can be tried, found guilty and put to death. Legal proceedings are moving forward, evidence has been collected and a large growing body of experts are sounding the alarm.

Visit the Covid Committee website at: https://corona-ausschuss.de/ and if you have been affected by this crime, report the event, persons involved, and as much detail to the following website:

WE NEED YOUR HELP
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Crimes against humanity affect us all. They are a crime against you, your children, your parents, your grandparents, your community and your country and your future.


Nuremberg, Germany

During the Moscow Conference on October 30, 1943, the Declaration of Atrocities was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin stating:

"The United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union have received from many quarters evidence of atrocities, massacres and cold-blooded mass executions which are being perpetrated by Hitlerite forces in many of the countries they have overrun . . . those German officers and men and members of the Nazi party who have been responsible for or have taken a consenting part in the above atrocities, massacres and executions will be sent back to the countries in which their abominable deeds were done in order that they may be judged and punished according to the laws of these liberated countries and of free governments which will be erected therein. "

Nuremberg, Germany was chosen as the location of the trials for being a focal point of Nazi propaganda rallies leading up to the war. The Allies wanted Nuremberg to symbolize the death of Nazi Germany. The court convened in the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg that was previously expanded by German prisoners to fit up to 1,200 detainees.


The Nuremberg trial begins

In this excerpt from Francine Hirsch’sSoviet Judgment at Nuremberg: A New History of the International Military Tribunal after World War II, Hirsch narrates the arrival of a Soviet contingent to the German city and the beginning of the famous trial.

The Soviet filmmaker Roman Karmen had a terrible time getting to Nuremberg. He showed up at the Central Moscow Aerodrome on the morning of November 20 and boarded a small plane that was soon packed with more than twenty writers, journalists, artists, and cameramen. The plane took off in clear skies and set a course west to Soviet- occupied Berlin, where officers from the Soviet Military Administration in Germany greeted the passengers and shuttled them to Karlshorst for the night.

Karmen and his travel companions took in Berlin during the drive to their lodgings. It was dreary — far drearier than Moscow, where the joy of victory eased the work of rebuilding. Pedestrians shuffled down the avenues, looking broken- down and bone-tired.

Early the next morning, Karmen and the others boarded a plane for Nuremberg. This time the weather was foggy, and the passengers endured a wrenching flight. Some of the correspondents tried to soothe their nerves by paging through the German-language daily Tägliche Rundschau, which included an article recapping the first day of the trial. Karmen had hoped to arrive at the Palace of Justice in time for most of the day’s proceedings. Instead, the plane circled over a fog-covered Nuremberg several times before turning back for Berlin.

He was now headed to Nuremberg on Stalin’s orders to capture for posterity the world’s final reckoning with the Nazi regime.

The nonlanding in Nuremberg seemed of a piece with the events of the past couple of months for the Soviets. The international tribunal was sup­posed to be the Soviet Union’s triumph and redemption — the vindication of its people’s suffering and sacrifice. But instead the Soviets were living a logistical nightmare. While striving to delay the start of the trials, Soviet leaders had held off on sending critical personnel to Nuremberg. The lousy weather had further delayed Soviet arrivals and contributed to the already entrenched sense of being behind.

Karmen was far more than a chronicler of events — he was an active and fully engaged participant, revered for his artistic genius as well as his daring. His newsreels and documentaries of the Spanish Civil War, including the 1937 Madrid in Flames, had brought him international fame. He had spent the last few years embedded with the Red Army, capturing on film the profound devastation the Nazi occupiers had wrought on the Soviet Union. Karmen had been everywhere. In February 1943 he had filmed the surrender and interrogation of German Field Marshal Friedrich von Paulus in Stalingrad. After filming the Soviet lib­eration of the Majdanek death camp in Lublin, Poland, in July 1944, he had accompanied the Red Army farther west. In April 1945 he had documented the taking of Berlin and the Nazi surrender. He was now headed to Nuremberg on Stalin’s orders to capture for posterity the world’s final reckoning with the Nazi regime.

Karmen was joined by some of the Soviet Union’s most eminent writers and artists, whose job would be to cover the Nuremberg Trials for audiences at home and abroad. These were seasoned men and talented propagandists. They had seen the death pits of Babi Yar and the concentration camps up close they had walked through the remains of bombed-out cities that stank of decaying corpses. They brought to their work a visceral power. Vsevolod Vishnevsky had gotten his start as a playwright in the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution, staging mock trials such as The Trial of the Kronstadt Mutineers. He had remained in his native Leningrad during the Nazi blockade, writing for Pravda and broadcasting near-daily radio announcements to the city’s des­perate inhabitants. In the spring of 1945 he, too, had marched with the Red Army to Berlin. Another passenger was Boris Efimov, who had spent the war years on the front working as an artist- correspondent for the Red Army news­paper Krasnaya zvezda (Red Star) and illustrating leaflets for Soviet fighter planes to airdrop into German-occupied territories.

When the fog lifted the next day, Karmen and his companions were fi­nally transported (some by plane and some by car) from Berlin to Nuremberg. Karmen chose to fly, and this time all went well. An American colonel reg­istered the new arrivals with the U.S. military government and drove them to the Faber Castle.

The castle, which was located in Stein, a city about five miles from Nuremberg, was an immense Gothic-style building with grand arches and corner turrets. Once the home of the aristocratic Bavarian family that made pencils, it had been transformed into the Press Camp. Karmen took note of its elaborate marble staircases and enormous library. It had been outfitted with offices, sitting rooms, typing rooms, and other amenities to serve the more than 300 correspondents who were covering the trials. The colonel pointed out the bar and the cafeteria to the Soviets, explained how to sign in for breakfast and supper, and then ushered them to their living quarters — a house on the castle grounds that, he casually mentioned, had formerly served as the headquarters of the local committee of the Nazi Party. The Americans had dubbed the house “the Russian palace” in anticipation of its Soviet lodgers. Everything had been cleaned and painted, but the quarters were cramped the correspondents would be living three or four people to a room. The weary travelers dropped off their belongings and set off immediately for the Palace of Justice, a twenty-minute drive away through neighborhoods that had largely been reduced to rubble.

The IMT was well under way by this point, having opened on November 20, the day the Soviet press delegation had left Moscow. Tribunal president Geoffrey Lawrence had inaugurated the proceedings with a short statement delivered in English and translated simultaneously into German, French, and Russian. The trial that was about to begin was “unique in the history of the jurisprudence of the world,” he had proclaimed, calling on all in­volved “to discharge their duties without fear or favor, in accordance with the sacred principles of law and justice.” These noble sentiments were well received.

Here they were now, sitting according to the rank they had once held in the Nazi hierarchy, looking small, old, and ordinary without their uniforms and insignia.

The rest of that first day in court had been devoted to reading out the Indictment. David Maxwell Fyfe, U.S. deputy chief prosecutor Sidney Alderman, and several junior members of the French and Soviet delegations had walked through the four major counts — conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity — and made brief reference to the evidence.

The defendants, who had already seen the Indictment in written form, had watched all of this from their seats in the dock. Even without key members of the regime’s top leadership (Hitler, Goebbels, and Heinrich Himmler had all committed suicide in the final days of the war) it was a collection of men who had brought the world to ruin. Here they were now, sitting according to the rank they had once held in the Nazi hierarchy, looking small, old, and ordinary without their uniforms and insignia. In the first row were Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel, Ernst von Kaltenbrunner, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Streicher, Walther Funk, and Hjalmar Schacht. Behind them were Karl Doenitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, Franz von Papen, Arthur Seyss- Inquart, Albert Speer, Konstantin von Neurath, and Hans Fritzsche. Martin Bormann, whose whereabouts remained unknown, would be tried in absentia. Some of the defendants seemed impassive others showed signs of strain still others looked far more at ease than they had any right to be.

Francine Hirsch is Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she teaches Soviet and Modern European history. Njena prva knjiga, Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet Union(2005), received several prizes, including the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize of the American Historical Association.


“It is history and it is fascinating”: Katherine Fite and the Nuremberg War Crime Trials, 1945

In 1945, while Katherine Fite worked as an Assistant to the Legal Advisor in the State Department, her supervisor recommended her for a temporary assignment as an assistant to Justice Robert H. Jackson with the Office of the United States Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminalitywhat would become the Nuremberg War Crime Trials.

Katherine graduated from Vassar College in 1926 and received her law degree from Yale in 1930. Before coming to the State Department in 1937, she worked as an attorney with the General Claims Commission. She received her assignment to work with Justice Jackson in July 1945 and traveled to London to meet with him while he attended the London Conference, which aimed to establish procedures for the war crimes trials. From there, she traveled to Nuremberg, where Katherine assisted in the preparation of evidence and arguments for the trial of the Major War Criminals.

While in London and Nuremberg, Katherine wrote vividly descriptive letters to her parents, which she later donated to the Truman Library. She describes her excitement and trepidation about flying for the first time, getting the opportunity to meet important people, and participating in and witnessing firsthand such an historic event. She also describes the less glamorous side of life in postwar Europe—seeing the concentration camps, the destruction of Germany, people trying to rebuild their lives, and interviewing Hitler’s accomplices.

Prior to the beginning of the Nuremberg War Crime Trials, the Four Powers (France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States) met in London to plan strategy and procedure for the trial. Near the end of July, a group from the meeting went to Nuremberg to inspect the trial site. Katherine is the only woman in this picture and one of only two women who went, the other being Justice Robert Jackson’s secretary. Justice Jackson is likely the man fourth from the right in the bow tie.

The Army issued this ration card to Katherine Fite while she worked in London before going to Nuremberg to begin working on the trial. In one of her letters to her parents, Katherine notes, “[t]he Army runs a vast socialist organization. You go to the PX with a ration card and buy what they have, not what you want. Never the same brand of toothpaste, but that keeps you from getting in a rut.”

In September, Katherine related to her parents the details of a visit to Munich and nearby Dachau concentration camp. She writes: “A group of low buildings constituted the horrible part of the camp—the torture chambers—the crematoria—the gas chamber and a place where they piled the unburned corpses. The last two were the worst. . . . It is really impossible to believe that the neighborhood didn’t know about it. The room where they stored the undisposed of corpses, as things crowded up towards the end, still had blood on the walls and even the ceilings.”

In this letter, Katherine writes to her parents of the advantages of being one of the only women stationed in Nuremberg with the prosecution team. She attended two parties at Justice Jackson’s residence in honor of Senator Claude Pepper, who was visiting Nuremberg. She notes “[y]ou see, the panel of eligible women for such parties is small. So I always get there and usually get the seat of honor. It’s fun, also an effort when you’re tired—as I am today.”

On the eve of the Nuremberg War Crime Trials in November, Katherine wrote to her parents and mentioned attending the final interview of Wilhelm Frick. Frick served as Reich Minister of the Interior from 1933 to 1943 and Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia from 1943 to 1945. Earlier, Katherine helped to engineer Frick’s first interrogation, and in a letter to her parents called him a “ratty, shifty looking man.” This time, she noted that he gave the “impression of being paralyzed with stage fright.” She wrote that “[a]nd when I feel sorry for Frick I think of the Jewish babies that were gassed.” The tribunal ultimately convicted and hanged Frick.

Katherine completed her detail and returned home at the end of December 1945. She traveled by train from Nuremberg to Paris and spent Christmas Eve there. On Christmas Day, she visited a friend from college. From Paris, she traveled to Le Havre to board the ship Vulcania.

At the end of her letter, she comments: “Europe is a sad, worn out continent. I’m glad to leave. The U.S. is sitting atop the world. I’ve been reading Time—European edition—this evening, & I realize how remote & exuberant & luxurious the U. S. is going to seem. We have to run the world—but the vast majority have no idea what the rest of the world is like. And how can equilibrium be maintained between wealth and energy on the one hand and poverty and exhaustion on the other?”

In December 1945, Katherine returned to her position in the Department of State. In 1957 she married Francis Lincoln, and in 1962, she retired from the State Department.

All of the letters that Katherine wrote to her parents, along with transcripts and other items, are fully digitized and available here in the National Archives Catalog.


From the Archives, 1945: The Nuremberg war crimes trials begin

The defendants in the dock: [front row, L-R]: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel. [second row, L-R]: Karl Dönitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel. Credit: United States Army

"The Age" Special Correspondent and A.A.P.

NUREMBERG November 20. The greatest trial in history began this morning, when 20 top-ranking Nazis heard themselves indicted as war criminals. The indictment, which contains 25,000 words, is divided into four sections- (1) The common plan of conspiracy (2) crimes against peace (3) war crimes (4) crimes against humanity.

Guards commenced moving the accused in groups of three from the gaol to the court room at 8 a.m. This task occupied 40 minutes.

Goering was first to enter the dock, with Hess and Raeder. All the accused chatted freely—the first time they have been given such an opportunity since being brought to Nuremberg.

White-helmeted guards with sub-machine guns, were everywhere in the court room. Armed guards were also on point duty throughout the shattered city.

The case for the prosecution is at present estimated to take about six weeks, but much may depend on the tactics of the defence.

The first move by the defence will almost certainly be a concerted challenge of the court’s jurisdiction, which is likely to be made as soon as the reading of the indictment is completed. Under the charter of the International Military Tribunal, however, any such challenge is bound to fail.

All the accused seemed keenly aware that they were the central figures in this unprecedented legal drama, and far from resenting it, they seemed to welcome the prolonged scrutiny given them by the press and spectators through field glasses. During the adjournment spectators attempted to crowd close around the dock, but they were restrained by guards.

Psychiatrists worked almost throughout the night making a final report on the condition of Hess. Only Goering of all the accused seemed aware that Kaltenbrunner was missing. He lifted his eyebrows significantly when told Kaltenbrunner had suffered a cerebral haemorrhage.

Sir Hartley Shawcross, chief of the British prosecution team, arrived at 9.55 a.m., leading the entire British delegation, whose members were wearing plain business suits. All the German counsel were robed in brilliant purple.

The judges: [L-R] Volchkov, Nikitchenko, Birkett, Sir Geoffrey Lawrence, Biddle, Parker, Donnedieu de Vabres and Falco. Credit: United States Army

The Lord Justice (Sir Geoffrey Lawrence), the British Judge who is presiding, opened proceedings by reading from the tribunal charter. He told the accused the tribunal was entrusted by the four United Nations with punishing war criminals.

Order & Decorum

"The trial which is about to begin is unique in the history of jurisprudence, and in its importance to people all over the world," said the Lord Justice. "All present must discharge their duties without fear or favor. It is a public trial, and the tribunal will insist on strict order and decorum."

The deputy American prosecutor (Mr. Sidney Alderman) then read the indictment. Fourteen of the accused donned headphones as he read. Hess was one of these, but later he removed them, and apparently followed what was said in English—the version heard through the earphones being a German translation.

The accused sat in two rows facing the bench on backless school forms. Their expressions ranged from the defiant glare of Schacht, to the vacant stare into space of Hess.

Goering, after the trial began, sat pale and frowning. Ribbentrop held his head philosophically on one side. Frick tapped his knees nervously. Streicher, the Jew baiter, looked thin and solemn, and sneered when he heard his name read in the indictment. Funk sat, with his eyes roving back and forth.

Soon the accused found the prosecutors intended to read the indictment right through. This came as a surprise as it had been fully publicised, and all concerned had read it.

A number of the accused, particularly Hess, smiled as the prosecutor reading the indictment took time to pronounce long German names of Nazi organisations.

The opening session adjourned after the hearing had lasted one hour and 10 minutes. Lord Justice Lawrence, at 11.10, obviously as weary as the accused at hearing the familiar document recited, called a quarter hour recess.

In Good Health

Last-minute medical reports showed that all the accused with the exception of Kaltenbrunner are in good health. Indeed, many of them are in better health than they have been since they started their luxurious lives as Nazi leaders.

Goering's weight is now only 15 st. 10 lb., which is within normal tolerance for a man of his age and height. He has cured his drug addiction, and elaborate cardiological tests show no signs of any organic heart ailment, although previously his drug taking had caused nervous heart palpitations.

Hess has gained weight slightly since he arrived in Nuremberg, and his physical condition is described as fair. Keitel, whose job apparently had been largely that of a "desk general," had flat feet which caused him pain, but by a judicious course of exercise in prison he is now largely cured.

Ribbentrop has had heat treatment for neuralgia, and Jodl similar treatment for lumbago. Frank is another of the accused who has been having heat treatment in gaol—in his case for partial paralysis of the left wrist resulting from a self-inflicted wound.

Major J. L. Lenehan. Credit: Australian War Memorial. 065440

Kaltenbrunner’s condition, which is not likely to be serious under proper treatment, is said to be possibly the result, of heightened blood pressure resulting from nervous tension.

Australia's Part

Australia is the first and at present the only British Dominion to appoint a special representative at the tribunal. He is Major Lenehan. He will be given all the privileges of the highest ranking personages at the trial, and will stay at Nuremberg's Grand Hotel, which is reserved for distinguished visitors.

British services are represented at the trials by Admiral Sir Harold Borrough (Navy), Major-General Viscount Bridgeman (Army), and Air Vice-Marshal F. L. Hobbs (Air Force).

Presenting the case for the prosecution are Sir Hartley Shawcross (Great Britain), Mr. Justice Robert Jackson (United States), Monsieur Francois de Menthon (France) and Colonel Yuri Pocrovsky (Soviet Union).

Hearing the charges under Lord Justice Sir Geoffrey Lawrence (Great Britain), are the Attorney-General, Mr. Francis Biddle (United States), Professor Henri Donnediev de Vabre (France) and Major-General Nikitchenko (Soviet Russia).

Krupp’s Future

The attitude of the French delegation regarding the prosecution of Alfried Krupp as a war criminal, which has been a subject of argument for several days, was settled by a compromise under which the British agreed to investigate the possibilities of conducting a further international trial for the prosecution of German industrialists.

The preparation of evidence against a large group of industrialists, including Krupp, is to be undertaken by a joint British and French team. This new move has the support of the United States and the Soviet, who had joined the French in their move to indict Gustav Krupp's eldest son when illness made the father’s trial impossible.

An individual guard stands before each cell in the main section of the Nuremberg jail where Nazi war criminals are lodged. The cells of Hermann Goering and Rudolf Hess are at the far right. Credit: United States Army

Reports of possible delay were the subject of strong advice from the Governments of the four prosecuting nations to their legal representatives in Nuremberg to "get on with the job." The Government advisers held that any delay alter the spotlight of world publicity had been so carefully focussed on the trial would have had a most unfortunate effect on public opinion. Delay would certainly have been received with dismay by the accused themselves who for weeks have been impatient for the trial to begin.

THE MEN IN THE DOCK

The men in the dock at Nuremberg are Hermann Wilhelm Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Wilhem Frick, Julius Streicher, Walter Funk.

Hjalmar Schacht, Karl Doenitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, Franz von Papen, Artur Seyss-Inquart, Albert Speer, Constantin von Neurath, Hans Fritzsche.

Being tried in their absence are Ernst Kaltenbrunner and Martin Bormann. Also named in the original indictment of October 6 were Robert Ley, who escaped justice by committing suicide, and Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, who lies dying of senile decay in a hospital at Salzburg.


Poglej si posnetek: - Zdeněk Zbořil - Norimberský proces (December 2021).

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