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Veliki ilirski upor - pozabljena vojna Rima na Balkanu, 6-9 n. Št., Jason R Abdale

Veliki ilirski upor - pozabljena vojna Rima na Balkanu, 6-9 n. Št., Jason R Abdale

Veliki ilirski upor-pozabljena vojna Rima na Balkanu, 6-9 n. Št., Jason R Abdale

Veliki ilirski upor-pozabljena vojna Rima na Balkanu, 6-9 n. Št., Jason R Abdale

Veliki ilirski upor je bil ena najdaljših in najtežjih vojn v času Avgustove vladavine. Prišlo je do ključne točke v teku rimskega osvajanja Nemčije, zaradi česar je bila opuščena načrtovana invazija na južno Nemčijo. Končalo se je tik pred znamenito katastrofo Varian, uničenjem treh legij v bitki pri Teutoburškem gozdu in je igralo vlogo pri oslabitvi rimske posadke v Nemčiji. Na neki točki vojne je bilo vpletenih kar petnajst legij, rimske vojne pa je vodil Avgustov dedič Tiberij, ki je bil na ta datum viden kot sposoben vojaški človek in ga dogodki njegove vladavine še niso okužili. To je bila tudi prva vojna za Germanika, ki je pozneje dobil slavo v Nemčiji in čigar zgodnja smrt je igrala vlogo pri propadu dinastije.

To ni zelo dobro dokumentirana vojna, zato se nam veliko podrobnosti izgubi. Avtor se je tukaj odločil, da bo zapolnil vrzeli v dokumentaciji. Nekateri od teh so povsem veljavni glede na geografijo območja, ki se ne bo spremenila v preveč podrobnostih (čeprav se reke premikajo in "očitna" pot skozi gorovje zdaj morda sploh ne bi bila možna pred leti, medtem ko je bila takratna čista pot morda zdaj popolnoma blokirana). Včasih se mi zdi, da gre avtor predaleč. Za kampanjo 8. AD se je ohranilo zelo malo podrobnosti, vključno z izhodiščem za kampanjo, ki jo je vodil Marcus Lepidus, in potjo, po kateri je šel. Avtor poda predlog za izhodišče, kar je v redu, nato pa na podlagi tega prejšnjega ugibanja izdela podrobno pot do konca kampanje. Čeprav je njegovo prvotno izhodišče morda veljavno, se velja spomniti, da je veliko rimskih mest, ki so nam popolnoma neznana, zato odsotnost prepričljive znane alternative še ne pomeni, da je ni (na mojem področju poznamo obstaja popolnoma izgubljena rimska utrdba, postavljena med dve znani lokaciji v rimskih seznamih utrdb). Tako se nam prikaže seznam plemen, ki bi jih Lepid lahko napadel. Nevarnost tega pristopa nastane, če se zaključki enega ugibanja uporabijo za obveščanje o naslednjem delu pripovedi, kar vodi v nastanek zgodovinske strukture, ki temelji na preveč domnevah. Tu še ne pridemo do te stopnje, vendar je nevarnost prisotna. Na srečo avtor vedno jasno pove, kdaj se špekulacije začnejo in virov zmanjka, zato se lahko sami odločimo o njegovih zaključkih.

Ne strinjam se z enim vidikom avtorjevih zaključkov - idejo, da so Rimljani iz te vojne dobili zelo malo. Pravzaprav njegovo besedilo jasno pove, da je bil to zadnji veliki upor v Iliriji, zato so Rimljani pridobili mirno pokrajino na ključni kopenski poti med vzhodnim in zahodnim cesarstvom. Ilirski vojaki so prav tako postali vse pomembnejši del rimske vojske, pokrajina pa je zagotovila vrsto poznih cesarjev, vključno z Dioklecijanom, katerega vladavina je pomenila konec krize tretjega stoletja in verjetno podaljšala življenje Zahodnega cesarstva za še eno stoletju.

Kljub tem zvijačam je to zanimiv pogled na relativno neznano vojno z velikim vplivom (zanjo sem slišal le nekaj tednov pred branjem te knjige, ko sem bral knjigo o Avgustovih vojnah). Ozadje nam daje uporabno sliko območja pred izbruhom upora, ki sledi zgodovini območja, preden so se na prizorišče prvič pojavili Rimljani. Ilirske vojne in slabo upravljanje, ki je pomagalo sprožiti upor. Slog pisanja v zgodovini vojne je nenavaden, a še vedno učinkovit in pomaga zapolniti vrzel v vojaški zgodovini tega ključnega obdobja.

Poglavja
1 - Iliri
2 - Rim in Balkan
3 - izbruh
4 - Plima se obrne
5 - Dolga trda zaloga
6 - Konec ceste
7 - Posledice

Avtor: Jason R Abdale
Izdaja: Trda vezava
Strani: 168
Založnik: Pen & Sword Military
Leto: 2019



Veliki ilirski upor

V letu 9 AD je nemški vojskovodja Arminius v bitki pri Tevtoburškem gozdu zdrobil tri rimske legije. Ta dogodek je dobro znan, vendar se je Rim malo pred tem soočil z drugo vstajo, ki je trajala od 6. do 9. n. Št. In je bila prav tako intenzivna. Ta upor se je zgodil na zahodnem Balkanu - območju, ki približno ustreza sodobni Hrvaški, Bosni in Hercegovini, Sloveniji, Črni gori ter delih Srbije in Albanije - in je preizkusil Rimsko cesarstvo do njegovih meja.

Tri leta se je petnajst legij borilo v ozkih dolinah in gozdovih pokritih dinarskih gorah v neusmiljeni izčrpavalni vojni proti prav tako neusmiljenemu in odločnemu sovražniku, vendar je ta spopad danes v veliki meri neznan. Veliki ilirski upor naj bi bila prva knjiga, posvečena tej pozabljeni vojni rimskega cesarstva. Na svojih straneh preučujemo zgodovino in kulturo skrivnostnega ilirskega ljudstva, zgodbo o tem, kako se je Rim vključil v to nestanovitno regijo, in s čim se je morala soočiti rimska vojska v teh mučnih treh letih na Balkanu.


Veliki ilirski upor - pozabljena vojna Rima na Balkanu, 6-9 n. Št., Jason R Abdale - zgodovina

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V letu 9 AD je nemški vojskovodja Arminius v bitki pri Tevtoburškem gozdu zdrobil tri rimske legije. Ta dogodek je dobro znan, vendar se je Rim malo pred tem soočil z drugo vstajo, ki je trajala od 6. do 9. n. Št. In je bila prav tako intenzivna. Ta upor se je zgodil na zahodnem Balkanu (območje, ki približno ustreza sodobni Hrvaški, Bosni in Hercegovini, Sloveniji, Črni gori ter delom Srbije in Albanije) in je preizkusilo Rimsko cesarstvo do njegovih meja. Tri leta se je petnajst legij borilo v ozkih dolinah in gozdovih pokritih dinarskih gorah v neusmiljeni izčrpavalni vojni proti prav tako neusmiljenemu in odločnemu sovražniku, vendar je ta spopad danes v veliki meri neznan. Velja, da je Veliki ilirski upor prva knjiga, posvečena tej pozabljeni vojni rimskega cesarstva. Na svojih straneh preučujemo zgodovino in kulturo skrivnostnega ilirskega ljudstva, zgodbo o tem, kako se je Rim vključil v to nestanovitno regijo, in s čim se je morala soočiti rimska vojska v teh mučnih treh letih na Balkanu.

Ta knjiga mi je bila zelo všeč, nekako vse, kar ste želeli vedeti o Ilirih, vendar ste se preveč bali vprašati. Osebno razmišljam o številkah, potrebnih za izgradnjo ilirske vojske, da bi se spopadli s svojimi Rimljani.

Ker je to verjetno edino splošno delo, za katerega se zavedam, da se ukvarjam izključno z Iliri, in glede na to, da je tako dobro napisano, jasno in enostavno razumljivo, lahko to vidim na knjižnih policah vseh, ki jih zanimajo splošni, politični oz. zlasti vojaške zgodovine obdobja vladavine Avgusta Cezarja. Priporočeno!

Kot je predstavil

VaeVictis - št. 144 - marec/avril 2019

Avtor opravlja hvalevredno delo pri poustvarjanju časovnega obdobja, sledenju izvoru Ilirov, izbruhu upora, rimskemu odzivu in posledicam spora. Zelo zanimivo in poučno branje.

Celoten pregled preberite tukaj

Stranka Amazon, David Poremba

To je zelo dobrodošla knjiga, ki odpira zanimivo in malo raziskano obdobje balkanske zgodovine.

Celoten pregled preberite tukaj

Balkan Wargamer

To je zelo dobro branje in ne zajema samo upora, ampak zajema tudi zgodovino rimskega vpliva v regiji.

Če vas zanimajo pogrešane legije Varus, vam bo ta knjiga morda pomagala osvetliti dogodke, ki so privedli do izgube štirih legij v gozdovih Nemčije.

Celoten pregled preberite tukaj

Srednjeveška šola mečev, Jason Hulott

To je zanimiv pogled na relativno neznano vojno z velikim vplivom. Slog pisanja v zgodovini vojne je nenavaden, a še vedno učinkovit in pomaga zapolniti vrzel v vojaški zgodovini tega ključnega obdobja.

Celoten pregled preberite tukaj

Zgodovina vojne

To je izjemno dobro raziskano in konstruirano delo, ki ponuja prikaz Ilirskega upora in njegovega širšega konteksta. Avtor uspe povedati zgodbo o tekočih vojnah, ki so privedle do končnega upora, in tudi o kulturi, ki so jo Rimljani uničili, ko so podredili Ilire.
Dobro branje za vse, ki jih zanima rimsko cesarstvo na splošno in zlasti rimska vojska.

Michael McCarthy. Vodnik po bojišču

Michael McCarthy

Jason R. Abdale je diplomiral in magistriral iz zgodovine na Queen's College v New Yorku. Je specialist za zgodovino in kulturo plemen, s poudarkom na staroevropskih plemenih. Njegovo prejšnjo knjigo Štirje dnevi v septembru: Bitka pri Teutoburgu (2. izdaja) je izšla pri založbi Pen & Sword leta 2016. Živi v New Yorku.


Veliki ilirski upor: pozabljena vojna Rima na Balkanu, 6. -9. N. Št

V letu 9 AD je nemški vojskovodja Arminius v bitki pri Tevtoburškem gozdu zdrobil tri rimske legije. Ta dogodek je dobro znan, vendar se je Rim malo pred tem soočil z drugo vstajo, ki je trajala od 6. do 9. n. Št. In je bila prav tako intenzivna. Ta upor se je zgodil na zahodnem Balkanu (območje, ki približno ustreza sodobni Hrvaški, Bosni in Hercegovini, Sloveniji, Črni gori ter delom Srbije in Albanije) in je preizkusilo Rimsko cesarstvo do njegovih meja. Tri leta se je borilo petnajst legij. Preberi več

V letu 9 AD je nemški vojskovodja Arminius v bitki pri Tevtoburškem gozdu zdrobil tri rimske legije. Ta dogodek je dobro znan, vendar se je Rim malo pred tem soočil z drugo vstajo, ki je trajala od 6. do 9. n. Št. In je bila prav tako intenzivna. Ta upor se je zgodil na zahodnem Balkanu (območje, ki približno ustreza sodobni Hrvaški, Bosni in Hercegovini, Sloveniji, Črni gori ter delom Srbije in Albanije) in je preizkusilo Rimsko cesarstvo do njegovih meja. Tri leta se je petnajst legij borilo v ozkih dolinah in gozdovih pokritih dinarskih gorah v neusmiljeni izčrpavalni vojni proti prav tako neusmiljenemu in odločnemu sovražniku, vendar je ta spopad danes v veliki meri neznan. Velja, da je Veliki ilirski upor prva knjiga, posvečena tej pozabljeni vojni rimskega cesarstva. Na svojih straneh preučujemo zgodovino in kulturo skrivnostnega ilirskega ljudstva, zgodbo o tem, kako se je Rim vključil v to nestanovitno regijo, in s čim se je morala soočiti rimska vojska v teh mučnih treh letih na Balkanu. Preberite manj


Marcus Plautius Silvanus (konzul 2 pr. N. Št.)

Marcus Plautius Silvanus sin drugega Marcus Plautius Silvanus in Urgulania, [2] bližnji prijatelj cesarice Livije, ki je bila etruščanskega porekla. Ronald Syme [3] ekstrapolira iz Tacita [4], da je Urgulanijin vpliv na Livijo omogočil Silvanu, da se je povzpel na cursus honorum, kar mu je omogočilo, da je zraven Avgusta prišel v konzulat leta 2 pr. Silvan je bil nato 4-5 let našega štetja imenovan za prokonzula Azije [5], sledilo je imenovanje za legatus pro praetore cesarske province Galatia 6. leta našega štetja, kjer je sodeloval pri zatiranju Isavrejcev [6], kot je omenjeno v Cassius Dio. [7] Bil je tudi septemvir Epulonov. [8]

Čeprav je Silvan služil pod Tiberijem v času velikega ilirskega upora oz Bellum Batonianum, Syme kaže, da je bodoči cesar dvomil o njem zaradi svoje tesne povezave prek matere z Livijo. [9] [10] Vsekakor se Silvan ne pojavlja v zgodovini po dogodkih v Iliriku med 6. in 9. letom našega štetja.

V letu 6 AD je bil Silvan dodeljen za prokonzula v provinci Galatia, ki je do takrat vključevala obalno regijo Pamphylia. Cassius Dio piše, da so Isavrejci začeli vrsto "pohodniških odprav" in niso opustili, dokler se niso soočili s "mračno vojno". [7] Sodobni zgodovinar Noel Lenski je po Symeju in Mitchellu zapisal, da odjemalski kralj Arhelaj I. ni mogel sam obvladati vstaje in je zato prisilil Rimljane, da so pod vodstvom Marka Plavcija Silvana zavezali vsaj dve legiji nadzor. ' [11] [12] Mitchell tudi predlaga, da je bila ena od teh legij Legio VII Macedonica, ki je bila v tem času nameščena v Antiohiji. [13]

Konec 6. leta našega štetja se je v Iliriku začel veliki ilirski upor ali Bellum Batonianum. [14] Leta 7 AD, verjetno pozno jeseni zgodaj pozimi, je Tiberija, ki je bil dodeljen poveljstvu vojaških razmer v Iliriku, poklical Silvana, da bi pripeljal več sil za pomoč pri zatiranju upora. [15] Stari pisatelji ne navajajo, od kod prihajajo te legije, čeprav so sodobni zgodovinarji sklepali, da je pripeljal dve (ali morda tri) legije, po možnosti Legio IV Scythica in Legio V Macedonica, verjetno iz Sirije [16] [17] [ 18]

V zvezi z letom, v katerem je Silvan prišel v Ilirik, so stari pisatelji navedli letnico 7, [14] [15], ki ji je sledil zgodovinar iz dvajsetega stoletja Syme, ki je izjavil, da je datum 7. AD »nesporen«. [19] [20] Vendar so nekateri sodobni zgodovinarji predlagali kontradiktorno in verjetno napačno „amfibijsko pristajanje“ med 6. letom našega štetja. [21]

Zdi se, da Velleius Paterculus kaže, da se je Silvan pridružil Caecini Severus, cesarski legat Mezije, v svoji provinci, preden sta skupaj odkorakala proti Iliriku. Med pohodom se jim je pridružila konjeniška sila Tračanov, ki jo je vodil kralj Rhoemetalces. To silo je sovražnik nepričakovano napadel na poti v bližini vulkanskega barja, v severni Panoniji pri Sisciji (sodobni Sisak), vendar jih je uspešno premagal. [22] Dio pa ne omenja Silvanove vpletenosti v ta incident, [23] medtem ko sodobni zgodovinarji izrecno trdijo, da je v ta dogodek vpletena le Caecina in njegove mezijske sile. [24] [25]

Ko sta oba generala, Silvan in Caecina Severus, skupaj z legijama združila moči in uspešno dosegla Ilirik, sta se pri Sirmiju borila v veliki bitki proti upornikom. Rimske sile so zmagale, vendar so utrpele velike izgube. Velleius Paterculus omenja smrt vojaških tribunov, številnih županov, taborskega prefekta in nekaj stotnikov, vključno z nekaterimi iz prvega reda. Skupno število smrtnih žrtev ni navedeno. [26] Paterkul je to bitko imenoval "skoraj smrtonosni poraz" in trdil, da je zmaga "osvojila večjo slavo [za vojake], kot je ostala za njihove častnike", ker niso sledili Tiberijevemu zgledu in poslali izvidnike ugotoviti lokacijo sovražnika. [26]

Po tem neperspektivnem začetku se je Silvan s svojimi dvema "vzhodnima legijama" v spremstvu Caecine legije odpravil proti Sisciji (sodobni Sisak), da bi se pridružil Tiberiju in dve legiji, ki sta se tam že zbrali. [27] Ko so imeli možje čas, da si opomorejo, je Tiberij nemudoma razdelil sile na štiri, poslal Caecino nazaj v Mezijo in se s Silvanom in "vzhodnimi legijami" odpravil nazaj v Sirmij, kjer so prezimovali in od koder je Silvan še naprej deloval za preostanek spora. [27] Paterkul navaja, da jih je Tiberij popeljal na "dolg in izredno naporen pohod, katerega težave težko opisujejo" [28], čeprav Silvanove vloge ne omenja posebej.

V 8. letu našega štetja Dio pripoveduje, da je Silvan osebno vodil uspešno kampanjo, da bi premagal Breučane, in pridobil zvestobo nekaterih drugih ilirskih plemen brez boja. [29]

V zadnjem letu upora, 9. AD, je Silvan ostal v Iliriku in deloval iz Sirmija. Dio navaja, da so njegove sile opustošile Panonijo, zaradi česar so se preostala plemena dogovorila. [29] Za svoja dejanja so mu skupaj z drugimi poveljniki podelili zmagovite časti [30], kar potrjuje napis, ki se pojavi na Silvanovem grobu v Tivoliju v Italiji. [31]

Marcus Plautius Silvanus je bil sin drugega Marcusa Plautiusa Silvana (nepreverjen) in Urgulania, tesnega prijatelja Livije. [2] Možno je, da družina izvira iz Marka Plavcija Hipsaja, konzula leta 125 pr.n.št., vendar Syme o tem dvomi. [32]

Silvanus se je poročil z Lartijo. [33] Njihovi znani otroci so:

    . Najprej se je poročil s Fabijo Numantino, vendar se je njun zakon končal pred 24. letom našega štetja, saj je bil takrat poročen z Apronijo, hčerko Lucija Apronija. Obtožili so ga, da je ubil Apronijo, tako da jo je vrgel skozi okno. [34] [35] Umor je preiskoval sam cesar Tiberije. Urgulania je nato vnuku poslala bodalo in ga spodbudila k samomoru, kar je tudi storil. Kmalu po umoru Apronije je bila Fabia Numantina "obtožena, da je z magičnimi čarovnijami in napoji povzročila norost svojega moža", vendar je bila oproščena. [34]
  • Aulus Plautius Urgulanius. Umrl pri devetih letih. [36]. Prijatelj in tovariš njegovega nečaka Klaudija Druza. Kvestor Tiberija in avgurski guverner Sicilije. [37], prva žena cesarja Klaudija.

Je tudi prvi bratranec Aula Plautija, ki je bil oče Aula Plautija, vodje invazije na Britanijo leta 43 n. [2]

Mavzolej, v katerem je bil pokopan Marcus Plautius Silvanus, še vedno stoji v sodobnem Tivoliju v Italiji. Velik napis, ki opisuje Silvanove dosežke, je še vedno na mestu in vključuje njegovo ženo Lartijo in enega od njegovih sinov Aula Plaucija Urgulanija skupaj z ločenim, zelo podrobnim kamnom posvojenega vnuka Tiberija Plavcija Silvana Aelijana.

Latinski napis se glasi: "M Plautius M F A N/ Silvanus/ Cos VIIvir Epulon/ huic senatus triumphalia/ ornamenta decrevit/ ob res in Ilyrico/ bene gestas/ Lartia CN F Uxor/ A Plautius M F/ Urgulanius/ vixit ann IX." [38]

Mavzolej je bil slavno poslikan kot "Lucanov most in mavzolej Plauti", z dveh različnih mest pa ga je vklesal Giovanni Battista Piranesi [39], med drugim pa Franz Knebel in Onorato Carlandi. Predstavljen je bil tudi na keramiki Spode, ki se je v začetku 19. stoletja imenovala "Lučanski most". [40]


Veliki ilirski upor - pozabljena vojna Rima na Balkanu, 6-9 n. Št., Jason R Abdale - zgodovina

V letu 9 AD je nemški vojskovodja Arminius v bitki pri Tevtoburškem gozdu zdrobil tri rimske legije. Ta dogodek je dobro znan, vendar se je Rim malo pred tem soočil z drugo vstajo, ki je trajala od 6. do 9. n. Št. In je bila prav tako intenzivna. Ta upor se je zgodil na zahodnem Balkanu (območje, ki približno ustreza sodobni Hrvaški, Bosni in Hercegovini, Sloveniji, Črni gori ter delom Srbije in Albanije) in je preizkusilo Rimsko cesarstvo do njegovih meja.

Tri leta se je petnajst legij borilo v ozkih dolinah in gozdovih pokritih dinarskih gorah v neusmiljeni izčrpavalni vojni proti prav tako neusmiljenemu in odločnemu sovražniku, vendar je ta spopad danes v veliki meri neznan. Velja, da je Veliki ilirski upor prva knjiga, posvečena tej pozabljeni vojni rimskega cesarstva.

Na svojih straneh preučujemo zgodovino in kulturo skrivnostnega ilirskega ljudstva, zgodbo o tem, kako se je Rim vključil v to nestanovitno regijo, in s čim se je morala soočiti rimska vojska v teh mučnih treh letih na Balkanu.

Knjiga vsebuje 10 črno -belih ilustracij, 4 zemljevide.

Jason R. Abdale je na univerzi Queen 's v New Yorku diplomiral iz zgodovine in diplomiral iz zgodovine. Je specialist za zgodovino in kulturo plemen, s poudarkom na staroevropskih plemenih. Njegovo prejšnjo knjigo Štirje dnevi v septembru: bitka pri Teutoburgu (2. izdaja) je leta 2016 izdala založba Pen & amp Sword . Živi v New Yorku.

Recenzije za Veliki ilirski upor: Rim in#039 pozabljena vojna na Balkanu, 6–9 n. Št.

Rim je na Balkanu vodil hudo triletno vojno, v kateri je sodelovalo 15 legij. to delo zajema tisti malo znani konflikt. - (09/01/2019)


Knjige, prejete marca 2019

Ta seznam vsebuje vse knjige in obvestila o novih knjigah, ki jih je BMCR prejel v prejšnjem mesecu.

Abdale, Jason R. Veliki ilirski upor: pozabljena vojna na Balkanu v Rimu, 6-9. N. Št. Barnsley: Pero in meč, 2019. xiii, 268 str. 20,00 € ISBN 9781526718174.

Abdallah, Komait. Les mosaïques romaines et bizantines de Syrie du nord: la collection du musée de Maarat al-Nu ’man. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, 213. Amman: IFP Orient, 2019. 346 str. 70,00 €. ISBN 9782351597484.

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In the year AD 9, three Roman legions were crushed by the German warlord Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. This event is well-known, but there was another uprising that Rome faced shortly before, which lasted from AD 6 to 9, and was just as intense. This rebellion occurred in the western Balkans (an area roughly corresponding to modern Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro and parts of Serbia and Albania) and it tested the Roman Empire to its limits. For three years, fifteen legions fought in the narrow valleys and forest-covered crags of the Dinaric Mountains in a ruthless war of attrition against an equally ruthless and determined foe, and yet this conflict is largely unknown today. The Great Illyrian Revolt is believed to be the first book ever devoted to this forgotten war of the Roman Empire. Within its pages, we examine the history and culture of the mysterious Illyrian people, the story of how Rome became involved in this volatile region, and what the Roman army had to face during those harrowing three years in the Balkans.

I really enjoyed this book, sort of an everything you wanted to know about the Illyrians but were too afraid to ask. On a personal basis, I am considering the figures needed to build an Illyrian army to face off against my Romans.

As this is probably the only general work that I am aware of dealing exclusively with the Illyrians, and given that it is so well written, clear and easy to understand, I can see this on the bookshelves of anyone interested in the general, political or military history of the period of Augustus Caesar’s reign in particular. Recommended!

As featured by

VaeVictis - n° 144 - mars/avril 2019

The author does a commendable job in recreating the time period, tracing the origins of the Illyrians, the outbreak of the revolt, the Roman response and the aftermath of the conflict. A very interesting and informative read.

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Amazon Customer, David Poremba

This is a very welcome book, which opens up an interesting and little explored period of Balkan history.

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Balkan Wargamer

This is a very good read, and covers not only the revolt, but it also covers the history of Roman influence in the region.

If you are interested in the missing Varus legions, then this book might help shed some new light on the events leading up the loss of four legions in the woods of Germany.

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Medieval Sword School, Jason Hulott

This is an interesting look at a relatively unfamiliar war with a big impact. The style of writing during the history of the war is unusual, but still effective, and it helps fill a gap in the military history of this crucial period.

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History of War

This is an exceptionally well researched and constructed work that offers an account of the Illyrian revolt and its wider context. The author succeeds in telling the story of the ongoing wars that led to the final revolt and also the culture that was destroyed by the Romans in subjugating the Illyrians.
A good read for anybody interested in the Roman Empire in general and the Roman Army in particular.

Michael McCarthy. Battlefield Guide

Michael McCarthy

Jason R. Abdale received his BA cum laude and MA in History at Queen’s College, New York. He is a specialist in tribal history and culture, with an emphasis on ancient European tribes. His previous book, Four Days in September: The Battle of Teutoburg (2nd edition), was published by Pen & Sword in 2016. He lives in New York.


Family [ edit ]

Marcus Plautius Silvanus was the son of another Marcus Plautius Silvanus (unattested) and Urgulania, a close friend of Livia. ΐ] It is possible that the family is descended from Marcus Plautius Hypsaeus, consul in 125 BC, however this is doubted by Syme. ⎬ ]

Silvanus married Lartia ⎭] . Their known children include:

    . First married Fabia Numantina, but their marriage was over prior to AD 24, as by then he was married to Apronia, daughter of Lucius Apronius. He was accused of murdering Apronia by throwing her out of a window. ⎮]⎯] The murder was investigated by emperor Tiberius himself. Urgulania then sent her grandson a dagger, encouraging him to commit suicide, which he duly did. Shortly after the murder of Apronia, Fabia Numantina was "charged with having caused her husband's insanity by magical incantations and potions", but was acquitted. ⎮]
  • Aulus Plautius Urgulanius. Died at the age of nine. ⎰]
  • Publius Plautius Pulcher. Friend and companion of his nephew Claudius Drusus. Quaestor to Tiberius, and augur governor of Sicilia. ⎱] , first wife of the emperor Claudius.

He is also the first cousin of Aulus Plautius (suffect consul 1 BC), who was the father of Aulus Plautius, leader of the Invasion of Britannia in 43AD. ΐ ]


Rome Seizes the Trident – The Defeat of Carthaginian Seapower and the Forging of the Roman Empire – Review

After reading Great Naval Battles of the Ancient Greek World by Owen Rees recently, it only seemed natural to pick up the story by looking at Rome and Carthage. Carthage was famous for its seafaring having been originally a Phoenician colony, the same Phoenicians who participated (we must assume unwillingly) in the ill-fated Persian invasions of Greece. Rome certainly was not famous for its seafaring.

Where the naval battles were mostly fought in the Ancient Greek World by triremes and to a lesser extent, penteconters, when Rome and Carthage faced off against each other the vessels had become heavier, consisting to quadriremes and more importantly, the peak of the ancient Mediterranean galleys, quinqueremes.

Pen & Sword Books published Rome Seizes the Trident – The Defeat of Carthaginian Seapower and the Forging of the Roman Empire by Marc G DeSantis. The book is 272 pages long (ISBN: 9781473826984) and was originally published on 16 May 2016. It is available in hardback, Kindle and ePub versions with the electronic versions somewhat cheaper than the printed copy.

Owen Rees noted that in the Battle of Catane, part of the Hegemony period, in the the battle between Syracuse and Carthage it appears that this is where the Carthaginians were first exposed to quadriremes and quinqueremes, noting:

Leptines had already shown himself a capable commander, having been in charge of the fleet since the siege of Motya, at the latest. Within his fleet he is said to have had thirty superior ships, a crack force of the same number which had confronted the Carthaginian armada at the beginning of their expedition. It seems extremely probably that these thirty ships, or at least a proportion of them, were of the new designs: quadriremes and quinqueremes.

When Carthage and Rome finally faced off in the Punic Wars, the standard warships at the stage were the quadriremes and quinqueremes Carthage may have been exposed to in Syracuse.

Marc G DeSantis commences his book by a look at the sources, and for this period , the preeminent source is Polybius. Also important of course were Livy although a much later author and concentrating on the Second Punic War and Plutarch, later still with his Parallel lives. Appian is the main source for the final Punic War and the destruction of Carthage. The Byzantine, John Zonaras was an author from the 12th Century but his value here is the summaries in Epitome Historiarum where he recounts information from the now fragmentary Dio with some naval aspects from the First Punic War that Polybius did not mention.

In Part I of his work, DeSantis breaks that section up into the following chapters:

Part I: Breaking Carthage

Chapter 1 – Sources
Chapter 2 – The Contestants
Chapter 3 – Sicily: Theatre of War, History and Blood
Chapter 4 – War at Sea in the Age of the War Galley
Chapter 5 – Breaking Athens: A Case Study

Chapters 4 and 5 are where DeSantis really gets swinging. The early chapters really set the scene, discussing Rome and Carthage and Sicily, for much of the naval aspects of the Punic Wars, the battleground. In Chapter 4 however he talks about the ways galleys fought, and for once he does not draw a straight dichotomy between ramming and boarding tactics, rather noting that both were used by all sides, depending on situation. He does draw a clear distinction, however, between the skilled seafarers who seemed to prefer ramming over boarding, such as the Athenians, the Phocaeans, the Rhodians and the Carthaginians. However he does point out that “ramming and boarding would have been carried out as the opportunities presented themselves”.

He notes the use of lemboi as a means of transferring signals across a fleet by standing off a little and repeating the signals, much like the frigates of the Napoleonic Wars at sea.

Chapter 5 is a review of the breaking of Athens through the negation of naval superiority in the Peloponnesian Wars. He also recounts a Corinthian tactic where the Corinthians at the Battle of Erineus in 413 BCE, slightly outnumbered by the 33 Athenian vessels, had made changes to their rams and adopted the tactic of a headlong charge at the Athenian fleet, looking to ram their vessels straight on and not giving the Athenians a chance to use their superior seamanship. While no vessels were sunk from either side so technically a draw, the Corinthians looked on it as a victory and the Athenians saw it as a defeat.

After this survey of early naval tactics, DeSantis starts on the meat of his work – the Punic Wars.

Part II – The First Punic War

Chapter 6 – Trouble at the Toe of Italy
Chapter 7 – Opening Moves
Chapter 8 – Mylae, 260 BC: Rome’s Fleet Sails in Harm’s Way
Chapter 9 – After Mylae
Chapter 10 – Ecnomus, 256 BC
Chapter 11 – The Battle of Cape Hermaeum, 255 BC
Chapter 12 – Rome Tries Again
Chapter 13 – Drepna, 249 BC
Chapter 14 – The Debut of Hamilcar Barca
Chapter 15 – Endgame: The Battle of the Aegates Islands, 241 BC
Chapter 16 – Peace
Chapter 17 – Was Seapower Worth the Cost?

DeSantis starts with the trouble at Messana and Rhegium and the effect of the perceived threat from Pyrrhus. Mercenaries and garrisons revolting and taking over, enter Hiero of Syracuse who placed the city of Messana under siege after defeating the Mamertimes at the Battle of Longanus River in 264 BC. The Mamertimes appealed to both Rome and Carthage for assistance. Rome really stepped in to prevent Carthage developing a toehold in Sicily, fearing that the Carthaginians would use that as a springboard to an invasion of Italy.

From this point in and narrative DeSantis examines the moves and counter moves of the protagonists. The Romans built a fleet, copying a Carthaginian galley that had grounded itself on the coast back in 264 when it was trying to oppose the Roman landings in Sicily. The Roman vessels however were not of the same quality as Carthaginian or Greek vessels. DeSantis the follows the course of the war, the defeats and then victories of the Romans, stopping briefly to discuss the Corvus and its origins. The necessity for the corvus was probably because of the poor quality of the Roman vessels and seamanship. The suggestion for the corvus appears to have come from an unnamed Sicilian Greek. The suggestion may have come from within Messana although there are a number of compelling suggestion that it may have come from Syracuse, given the Syracusans being an enthusiastic practitioner of the Corinthian style headlong rush into the enemy. Grappling from that position was a natural extension of that tactic and building a boarding bride, the next logical step.

DeSantis also examines the negative answer to this version of the corvus mounting as well and provides a good counter argument. His discussion of the corvus and the Roman quinquereme versus the Carthaginian quinquereme is a far argument of both sides of the tale. I will admit that his discussion has me reexamining some of my thoughts and perceptions of naval warfare in those times.

He then discusses the more famous battles, Mylae Ecnomus Cape Hermaeum Drepna and Aegates Islands. To conclude the section on the First Punic War DeSantis looks at the question, “was the seapower worth the cost?”

Part III: Conflicts Between the Wars

Chapter 18 – Illyria and Gaul
Chapter 19 – The Mercenary Revolt 240-238 BC

The two chapters here deal with Rome’s intervention in Illyria in 229 and the overseas deployment, this time across the Adriatic, of the Roman army. The start of this intervention paralleled that of the start of the First Punic War but in this case it was a bunch of Gallic mercenaries seized control of the city of Phoenice in Epirus. The people of the city asked the Romans for assistance and that coupled with the Illyrian pirates attacking Italian shipping the situation became one that Rome could ignore. Polybius even records that previously the Senate in Rome always ignored complaints about the Illyrians. Rome sent a couple of commissioners to Queen Teuta’s court but she dismissed them and apparently had one murdered while he was returning to Rome.

Naval operations got underway with the Illyrians attacking Epidamnus and Corcyra. The Corcyraeans appealed for assistance to the Achaeans and Aetolians for assistance and 10 Achaean ships were sent (quadriremes it seems). Acarnanians allied themselves to the Illyrians and sent seven galleys. A small inconclusive battle was fought off the Paxi Islands. The Illyrians used lighter galleys than the Achaeans but developed an interesting tactic when they faced the Achaeans. The Illyrians lasd their vessels together in groups of four. This was a tempting broadside target for the Achaeans who dutifully increased the stroke rate to ram speed and hit the Illyrians vessels only then to become entangled with the four lashed vessels and as their crews were well outnumbered (about 4 to 1), the Illyrians stormed the Achaean vessels and four Achaean quadriremes were either lost or captured.

The Roman army and fleet became engaged in the area now and the result was around 20 Illyrian galleys and most of the coastal cities captured by the fleet while the army moved inland and took control of cities there.

Part IV: Strangling Carthage

Chapter 20 – The Second Punic War, 218-202 BC
Chapter 21 – A Second War with Carthage
Chapter 22 – Hannibal in Italy
Chapter 23 – Holding the Line in the Adriatic: The War with Macedonia
Chapter 24 – Sicily and Sardinia
Chapter 25 – Carthage’s Spanish Ulcer
Chapter 26 – Africa
Chapter 27 – Seapower and the Second Punic War

The Second Punic War is one that modern readers mostly associate with Hannibal (with or without his elephants) Scipio Africanus battles such as Cannae, Trebia, Trasimene and Zama and a small largely mercenary army spending 16 years in enemy territory undefeated. This is not to ignore the contribution of Scipio, especially with the battles he fought in Spain but mostly the Second Punic War is remembered for land actions.

DeSantis makes a good survey of naval action as well as other theatres over this period. The details of the treaty Hannibal struck with Philip V of Macedon, for example, where the Macedonians would assemble a fleet of 200 ships and harry the west coast of Italy as well as operations on land. Once the Romans had been defeated, Macedon would be given control of the Illyrian coast and Hannibal would assist Philip to defeat his Greek enemies.

Over the period of the Second Punic War there were a number of naval expeditions, mostly in and around Sicily. Bomilcar in 212 with 130 war galleys and 700 transport ships sailing to Sicily to rescue Syracuse from the Romans was one such expedition. Over this period, Rome maintained some measure of control over the sea between Africa and Sicily but there were many other areas where control of the sea was not so complete.

DeSantis also notes that the Carthaginians may have been reluctant to try their hand against Rome at sea as the First Punic War and the naval defeats there were only a generation previously.

Part V: Destroying Carthage

Chapter 28 – Roman Naval Operation in the East
Chapter 29 – A Third War with Carthage

Interestingly, DeSantis notes as well about this period, “the First Macedonian War (215-205), fought as part of the larger Second Punic War, had sputtered along once the Romans lost interest in it.” In chapter 28 he surveys the Roman naval operations in and around Greece, especially with regards to the Second Macedonian War and makes mention of the monster galley building of the Hellenistic monarchs (for further detail on those monster galleys, I can suggest Giant Hellenistic warships with more than 7000 crew members).

To conclude his work, DeSantis notes a number of changes in Roman Society as a result of the Punic Wars. He contends that the huge influx on slaves after the First Punic War changed the state from one of yeoman farmers into a state with great inequality among the citizenry. The appearance of the patron-client relationship over this period as well would cause issues for the later Republic. This relationship first appeared in the Second Punic War. As more provinces were added to the Roman Empire, the equites or knights became more and more wealthy as the class that were the tax collectors. This stymied any future attempts of the aristocrats to return Italian peasant farmers to the land as well as causing provincial populations to hate the state as a result of the deprivations of the tax collectors.

The Romans also simplified their ship building (as did the Carthaginians for that matter), preparing premade parts and stockpiling them, building the ship as a large kit. Rome settled on two ship designs over the period, the being based on the Carthaginian war galley that had run aground in 264 and the second on the vessel of Hannibal the Rhodian, captured in 250.

DeSantis’ book is a good survey of Rome’s efforts at sea and the effects of the strategy and tactics involved in the period covered. He discusses the effects of battles and political manoeuvring, including its effects on the struggles underway on land. This is a great read, and one I have been waiting to read since I read A Naval History of the Peloponnesian War – Ships, Men and Money in the War at Sea, 431-404 BC – Marc G DeSantis last year (yes, I know, read them in the wrong order). I am happy to recommend this book to anyone interested in ancient history, military history, naval history, classic naval warfare. I will admit to having learnt a few new things here, especially about Queen Teuta and her conflict with Rome.


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