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Rimsko gledališče Vienne

Rimsko gledališče Vienne

Rimsko gledališče Vienne (Theatre Antique de Vienne) je gledališče iz prvega stoletja našega štetja, ki naj bi bilo nekoč med največjimi v Galiji.

Zgrajen nekje med 40 in 50 AD, je prvotno zmogel 13.000 gledalcev. V rimskem gledališču Vienne so na svojem vrhuncu gostili različne dogodke, od iger in predstav do javnih srečanj, zaradi česar je postalo zelo družabno središče.

Zdaj obnovljeno, rimsko gledališče Vienne je ponovno polno življenja kot prizorišče vsega, od iger do opernih in jazz festivalov.

Zgodovina rimskega gledališča Vienne

V starih časih je bila Vienne prestolnica keltskega plemena, znanega kot Allobroges. Rimljani so ga osvojili leta 121 pred našim štetjem in je bilo pozneje eno najpomembnejših mest v Galiji, dokler se leta 275 n.

Viennsko rimsko gledališče je bilo zgrajeno v 40-50 letih in stoji na strmih pobočjih Pipet Hilla. V starih časih je bil vrh verska esplanada, katere templji in božanski kipi so predstavljali sveto razširitev gledališča. V njem bi lahko bilo okoli 13.000 gledalcev, zaradi česar je gledališče Vienne postalo eno največjih mestnih gledališč v rimskem cesarstvu, drugo največje v Galiji po tistem v Autunu.

V 2. stoletju je bilo v bližini na južnem pobočju grape Saint-Marcel zgrajeno drugo, manjše gledališče Odeon.

Njegova postavitev je bila v skladu z modelom latinskega kamnitega gledališča, krožni obokani hodniki pa so tvorili okostje teras jam in so jih gledalci uporabljali za gibanje. Gledališče ni služilo samo za zabavo, ampak tudi za državljanska in uradna srečanja.

Leta 1834 je arheologu in muzejskemu kustosu Claude-Thomasu Delormeju uspelo prepričati Prosperja Mériméea, generalnega inšpektorja Monuments Historiques, da bi bile relikvije ob vznožju hriba Pipet lahko rimskega gledališča in ne amfiteatra, kot so vsi še vedno verjeli do zgodnjih časov. 20. stoletje. Šele pri izkopavanjih med letoma 1908 in 1938 so spomenik odkrili in obnovili, potem ko so ga zakopali pod tisoče kvadratnih metrov zemlje.

Rimsko gledališče Vienne danes

Po obnovi so poletne postave oživile vlogo gledališča kot središča zabave v skupnosti. Tam se odvijajo opere, muzikali, plesi in jazz festival, ki se je začel leta 1981. Na Jazz festivalu so nastopili priznani izvajalci, kot so Miles Davis, Ella Fitzgerald in Stevie Wonder.

Prihod v rimsko gledališče Vienne

Rimsko gledališče Vienne je približno 40 minut vožnje od Lyona. Najbližja železniška postaja je Vienne.


Rimska piramida

Rimska piramida na Dunaju je simbolna stavba arhitekturne dediščine mesta skupaj z rimskim gledališčem. Je edinstven ostanek rimskega cirkusa, kjer so potekale dirke.

Piramida je bila osrednja zgradba rimskega 'cirkus maximusa'. 25 metrov visok obelisk je stal v središču peščene steze. Njegovo lego na aksialni ploščadi (Spina) so potrdili izkopavanja v devetnajstem in v začetku dvanajstega stoletja.

Kopija "cirkus maximus" iz Rima, arheologi menijo, da bi lahko sprejela med petnajst do dvajset tisoč gledalcev. Viennsko piramido so prebivalci dolgo imenovali "igla". Priljubljene legende celo govorijo, da je tukaj grob Poncija Pilata, ki je po tem, ko je bil guverner Judeje, umrl v izgnanstvu v Viennu.

Naslov

Podrobnosti

Več informacij

Ocena

Zanimiva spletna mesta v bližini

Mnenja uporabnikov

Predstavljene zgodovinske znamenitosti, mesta in zgradbe


Rimske ruševine Vienne, Francija

Rimske ruševine na Dunaju so povsod. Zanimivo je, da mesto ni bolj znano, saj resnično naredijo to mesto izjemen kraj za obisk. V Viennu odkrivajo še več ostankov. Leta 2017 so bila dela v bližini mestne hiše na podzemnem parkirišču ustavljena zaradi dokazov o znatnih ostankih in istega leta so na drugi strani reke v Saint-Colombu našli rimske ruševine celotne dodatne soseske.

V središču srednjeveškega mesta je mesto, ki je potujočemu turistu najbolj nepričakovano: Avgustov in Livijski tempelj. Ta tempelj je bil zgrajen po posvetu prvega rimskega cesarja Avgusta in njegove žene Livije. Avgust je prevzel oblast, ko je bil njegov veliki stric, Julij Cezar, umorjen leta 44 pred našim štetjem (Cezar ga je v oporoki imenoval za svojega posvojitelja in dediča). Tempelj je bil zgrajen leta 10 pred našim štetjem in še danes stoji v impresivnem stanju. Kljub temu, da so bili deli včasih obnavljani, je preživel številne spore in načine uporabe. Po padcu rimskega cesarstva je tempelj do francoske revolucije postal cerkev. Leta 1792 je cerkev postala »tempelj razuma«, potem pa je bilo to trgovsko sodišče. Nato so ga spremenili v muzej, nato pa so ga ponovno spremenili v knjižnico v Dunaju do leta 1852. Šele po 28 letih skrbne obnove je tempelj lahko ponovno pridobil svojo drznost in značaj, ki ga vidimo danes.

Tempelj ima pred seboj nekaj barov, danes pa je prijetno mesto za uživanje ob kavi ali pivu z veliko sence in prostorom za tekanje otrok. Tu je tudi odlična knjigarna in odličen mali prodajalec vina.


Rimsko gledališče

Viennsko rimsko gledališče je bilo zgrajeno leta 40-50 AD in velja za največje v rimski antiki. Kot glavno in edino plačljivo prizorišče festivala lahko rimsko gledališče sprejme do 7500 ljudi. Rimsko gledališče se obnavlja od septembra 2018. Prenova naj bi bila končana spomladi 2020. Največji nastopajoči so nastopili tukaj od leta 1981, med njimi Miles Davis, Stan Getz, Claude Nougaro, Michel Petrucciani, Ella Fitzgerald, Sonny Rollins, Lionel Hampton, Dee Dee Bridgewater, Chuck Berry, Ike Turner, Ray Charles, James Brown, Stevie Wonder, The Roots, Santana, George Benson, Herbie Hancock, Robert Plant, Youssou NDour, Gilberto Gil…

Obstaja tudi več noči, ki predstavljajo jazzove sestrične: hip hop, blues, Kuba, Karibi, Afrika ...

// Vsak dan (razen nedelje 30. junija), od 20.30
// Odpiranje vrat: 2 uri prej


Rimski dunaj

Tempelj Auguste in Livie je ponoči zasvetil v Viennu v Franciji ( CC BY 3.0 )

Položaj Vienne na mogočni reki Rhône je bil del glavne prometne poti, ki je povezovala Lyon, kmalu glavno mesto Galije na severu, z Gallijo Narbonensis, rimsko naselbino na jugu. Kolonizirano mesto je vse svoje prebivalce postalo državljanom Rima in je uspevalo pod zaporednimi cezarji, dokazi o katerih obstajajo do danes. Morda je najbolj impresiven ta dokaz Augustov in Livijski tempelj, ki je izjemno dobro ohranjen, kasneje pa so ga uporabljali kot cerkev. Še vedno obstaja gledališče, "Kibelin vrt" (Kibela, ki ga Rimljani poznajo kot Magna Mater ali Velika mati) in spomenik v obliki piramide, ki je bil del rimskega "cirkusa" ali hipodroma.

Položaj Vienne v cesarstvu niso sprejeli vsi in ljudje iz bližnjega rivalskega mesta Lyon so pozivali k njegovemu uničenju. Mesto je kljub tem težavam živelo, vendar je trpelo zaradi konkurenčne trditve Lyona, da je vodilno mesto na tem območju, in do 3. stoletja se je drastično zmanjšalo, saj je Lyon prevzel vodilno vlogo v regiji. Zgradili so novo mestno obzidje, ki je bilo manj kot tretjina dolžine obstoječega 7-kilometrskega obzidja.


Rimske ruševine v Lyonu

Rimske ruševine v francoskem Lyonu so le nekateri kazalci neverjetne zgodovine tega mesta in priča o tem, da je to mesto, ki je v takšni ali drugačni obliki že tisočletja. Lyonski amfiteater, ki ga pogosto imenujejo Amphitheatre des Trois Gaules (ali Amfiteater treh galov), je med najstarejšimi ruševinami, ki so jih odkrili v Franciji. Ime je dobil zaradi povezanosti z rimskim cesarstvom in družbenega in političnega konstrukta, ki so ga vzpostavili v Lyonu (takrat imenovanem Lugdunum) po galskih vojnah Julija Cezarja. Veliko gledališče na istem arheološkem najdišču je najstarejše od vseh gledališč v Franciji. Rimske ruševine v Lyonu se nahajajo na hribu Fourviere, priljubljenem mestu tako za turiste kot za prebivalce, saj so v njem številne zgodovinske in kulturne znamenitosti.

Lyonski amfiteater in druge ruševine so začeli odkrivati, ko je župan mesta Edouard Herriot naročil projekt na lokaciji Fourviere Hill. Na koncu je bil obsežen, 46-letni arheološki projekt, ki je na koncu odkril vse, od ostankov javnih trgov in ulic do domov in trgovin. Dva nesporna dragulja arheološke odprave sta bila Amfiteater des Trois Gaules in gledališče Odeon. Ko so odkrili Amfiteater de Trois Gaules, so nekateri kazalniki kazali na dejstvo, da je nekoč morda bilo polno gledališče. Oba rimska ruševina v Lyonu kažeta na prisotnost in moč rimskega cesarstva in mlade prestolnice Galije Lugdunuma, ki bi na koncu postal Lyon.

Cesar Avgust je okoli leta 15 pred našim štetjem zgradil Veliko gledališče, imenovano običajno Lyonski amfiteater. Prvotna zasnova tega neverjetnega arhitekturnega dela je obsegala dve stopnji, ki sta lahko sprejeli približno 4.500 ljudi. Kasnejša inovacija, vključno z zgornjo, pokrito potjo, bi kmalu povečala zmogljivost na 10.000. Lyonski amfiteater je največje tovrstno gledališče, ki so ga našli v Galiji do danes. To obsega široko območje zemlje, vključno z območji Nizozemske, Nemčije in Belgije.

Lyon zemljevid

Gledališče Odeon je še ena najvidnejših rimskih ruševin v Lyonu. Zgrajena je bila sredi drugega stoletja. Odeoni so manjša gledališča, ki so večkrat pokrita s streho in uporabljajo poezijo, glasbo in druge tovrstne medije. Edini drugi Odeon v celotni Galiji je rimsko gledališče Vienne, ki se nahaja v Viennu, na levem bregu reke Rhone približno dvajset milj južno od Lyona. To gledališče je še eno neverjetno delo starodavne arhitekture. Vredno je dopoldansko ali popoldansko potovanje v Vienne, da bi bili priča neverjetnemu amfiteatru s 6.000 sedeži, dinamični umetnosti in številnim drugim ruševinam, ki obdajajo gledališče.

Če že nameravate obiskati rimske ruševine na hribu Fourviere, bi morali razmisliti o obisku Muzeja galo-rimske civilizacije, ki se nahaja severno od ruševin. Za ogled zgodovine velikega Lugdunuma je vstop v muzej skromen. Pričakujete lahko kipe, napise, umetnost, tekstil in še veliko več.


Vienne Roman Theatre - Zgodovina

Vir: Wilson in Goldfarb, 10. poglavje

Cilji te lekcije:

Rim leta 753 pr. je bilo mesto, v katerem prevladuje Etrurija, severno od Rima. Leta 509 pr.n.št.je bil izgnan etruščanski (iz Etrurije) vladar, Rim pa je postal republika (tako kot so Atene postale demokracija).

V 4. stoletju pred našim štetjem se je Rim razširil in do leta 265 pr. nadzoroval italijanski polotok, nato Sicilijo, nato več grških ozemelj.

Do leta 240 pred našim štetjem je bilo grško gledališče poznano Rimljanom, prevedeno v latinščino in preneseno v Rim.

Začetki rimskega gledališča so zabeležili: prvi zapis drame na Ludi Romani (rimski festival ali rimske igre).

Rim je postal imperij po Juliju Cezarju, 27 pr.

Republika od 509-27 pr. Cesarstvo od 27. pr.n.št.-476 n.

Do leta 345 je bilo na leto 175 festivalov, 101 je bil namenjen gledališču. Leta 55 pred našim štetjem je bilo v Rimu zgrajeno prvo kamnito gledališče (Julija Cezarja)

Izposodil si je grške ideje in jih izboljšal (?)

Zajema več kot dramo: akrobacije, gladiatorje, žonglerje, atletiko, dirke na vozovih, naumachia (morske bitke), boks, venationes (borbe živali)

Zabava je bila ponavadi veličastna, sentimentalna, diverzivna

Igralci / izvajalci so bili imenovani "histriones"

    1. Grška drama
    2. Etruščanski vplivi-poudarjeni cirkuski elementi
    3. Fabula Atellana - Atellanova farsa (Atella je bila blizu Neaplja).

    Morda je vplival commedia dell Arte

    Bucco: hvalisavec, hripav

    Dossenus: goljuf, pijan, grbav

    Drama je v času republike cvetela, pod imperijem pa je upadla v raznoliko zabavo Rimski festivali:

    V čast bogovom, vendar precej manj religiozen kot v Grčiji.

    Ludi Romani 6. stoletje pr.

    Gledališče je postalo leta 364 pr.

    Održali septembra (jeseni) in počastili Jupitra.

    Do leta 240 pred našim štetjem sta bili izvedeni tako komedija kot tragedija.

    Pet drugih: Ludi Florales (april), Plebeii (november), Apollinares (julij), Megalenses (april), Žitarice (brez posebne sezone).

    V času cesarstva so ti festivali množicam ponudili "kruh in cirkuse" - številne predstave.

    Nastopi na festivalih, ki jih je država verjetno plačala bogatemu državljanu, imeli so prost vstop, so bili dolgi, vključno z vrsto iger ali dogodkov, in verjetno so bile podeljene nagrade tistim, ki so vložili dodaten denar.

    Igralske skupine (morda več na dan) prirejajo gledališke dogodke.

    Oblike rimskega gledališča

    Rimska drama Pomembno je le približno 200 let:

    Livij Andronik, 240–204 pr. Napisal, prevedel ali priredil komedije in tragedije, prva pomembna dela v latinščini. Malo je znanega, a zdi se, da je bil najboljši v tragediji.

    Gnej Naevius, 270-201 pr. blestel v komediji, a napisal oboje

    Oba sta pripomogla k "romanizaciji" drame z vnosom rimskih aluzij v grške izvirnike in uporabo rimskih zgodb.

    Komedija in tragedija sta šli po različnih poteh.

    Druge oblike rimskega gledališča:

    Pantomima: solo ples, z glasbo (lutnje, pipe, činele) in zborom.

    Rabljene maske, pripovedovanje zgodb, mitologija ali zgodovinske zgodbe, običajno resne, včasih pa komične

        Govorjeno
        Običajno kratek
        Včasih izdelane zasedbe in spektakel
        Resno ali komično (satirično)
        Brez mask
        Imel je ženske
        Nasilje in spol sta dobesedno prikazana (Heliogabal, vladal 218-222 po Kr., Ukazal realističen seks)
        Posmehovali se krščanstvu

      Komedija je bil najbolj priljubljen: ohranjen je le material dveh dramatikov

          Zelo priljubljena.
          Lonec z zlatom, Menaechmi, Braggart bojevnik -verjetno med 205-184 pr.
          Vse temelji na novih grških komedijah, verjetno nobena ni preživela
          Dodane rimske aluzije, latinski dialog, raznoliki pesniški metri, duhovite šale
          Nekaj ​​tehnik: stychomythia pogovor s kratkimi črtami, kot teniška tekma
          Paličica
          Pesmi

        Rojen v Kartagini, prišel v Rim kot suženj, izobražen in osvobojen
        Šest predstav, vse preživijo
        Bratje, tašča
        itd.
        Bolj zapleteni zapleti - združene zgodbe iz grških izvirnikov.
        Karakter in dvojni zapleti so bili njegovi močni kontrasti v človeškem vedenju
        Manj razburljiv kot Plavtus, manj epizoden, bolj eleganten jezik.
        Uporabljeni grški znaki.
        Manj priljubljen kot Plavtus.

        Značilnosti rimske komedije:
        Zbor je bil opuščen
        Brez delitev dejanj ali prizorov
        Pesmi (Plavtus - povprečno tri pesmi, 2/3 vrstic z glasbo Terence - brez pesmi, ampak glasba s polovico dialoga)
        Vsakdanje domače zadeve
        Akcija na ulici

        Noben ni preživel iz zgodnjega obdobja in le en dramatik iz poznejšega obdobja:

          Devet obstoječih tragedij, pet po Euripidu.
          Njegova priljubljenost se je zmanjšala, samomor leta 65 n.
          Čeprav je veljal za manjvrednega, je imel Seneka močan vpliv na poznejše dramatike.
          Trojanke, mediji, Edip, Agamemnon
          itd., vse na osnovi grških izvirnikov
          Verjetno omarne drame nikoli predstavljeno ali celo pričakovano.
            pet epizod / dejanj, razdeljenih po zborovskih odih
            izdelani govori forenzični vpliv
            interes za moralo, izražen v sententiae (kratke podrobne posplošitve o človekovem stanju)
            nasilje in grozota na odru, za razliko od grške (Jocasta na primer odpre maternico)
            Liki, v katerih prevladuje ena strast - obsesivni (na primer maščevanje) - jih vodijo v pogubo
            Tehnične naprave:
            Soliloquies, poleg, zaupniki
            Zanimanje za nadnaravne in človeške povezave je bilo zanimanje za renesanso

          R omanska ramatična teorija:

            V njegovem času je bil majhen vpliv (takrat je bilo zanimanje za gledališče in ne dramo), velik vpliv pa je imel v renesansi
            Interpretirano Aristotelovo Poetika, vendar manj teoretično in bolj usmerjeno v prakso
            Omembe enotnosti (časa, kraja in dejanja), žanrska ločitev, uporaba jezika v tragediji in komediji

          R oman T heatre D esign Zgradbe

          Prvo stalno rimsko gledališče, zgrajeno 54 let po Kr. (100 let po zadnji ohranjeni komediji)
          Tako so stalne strukture, kot je Grčija, izvirale iz obdobij po pomembnem pisanju
          Več kot 100 stalnih gledaliških struktur do leta 550 n.

          Splošne značilnosti:
          Zgrajena na ravni podlagi s sedeži v stadionskem stilu (občinstvo zbrano)
          Skene
          postane scaena skupaj z občinstvom tvoril eno arhitekturno enoto
          Paradoi postati bruhanje v orkester in občinstvo
          Orkester postane polkrog
          Oder dvignjen na pet metrov
          Odri so bili veliki 20 20-40 čevljev globoko, 100-300 čevljev dolgi, lahko sprejmejo 10-15.000 ljudi
          3-5 vrat v zadnji steni in vsaj ena v krilih
          scaena frons fa & ccedilade odrske hiše so naslikali stebre, niše, portike, kipe
          oder je bil pokrit s streho
          garderobe v stranskih krilih
          lovilna vrata so bila pogosta
          nadstrešiti občinstvo, da jih zaščiti pred soncem,
          v času cesarstva okoli leta 78 pr. hladilni sistem - zrak, ki piha po vodnih tokovih
          območje od scaena imenovano proskene (proscenium)

          125 stalnih gledališč, zgrajenih v času cesarstva.

          Kliknite tukaj, če želite izvedeti več o rimskih gledališčih.

              za dirke z vozički 600 pr. 2000 čevljev dolga, 650 čevljev široka, 60.000 gledalcev
              Sledite, da dirkate z 12 vozički hkrati
              v njem so bile tudi cirkuške igre, konjske dirke, borbe za nagrade, rokoborba itd.

            Za gladiatorska tekmovanja, borbe divjih živali in občasno naumachia (morske bitke)
            Prva stalna leta 46 pr.
            Kolosej, 80 nadstropje, tri nadstropja, nato 4 157 čevljev visok 620 čevljev dolg 513 čevljev širok 50.000 ljudi.
            Imel je prostor z dvigali spodaj za vzgojo živali itd.
            Rabljeno periaktoi(kliknite tukaj za ogled filma- morate imeti nameščen QuickTime !!- in to traja nekaj časa za nalaganje).
            Morda zavese nazaj in v ospredju
            Spektakularni učinki:
            številni izvajalci (Ciceron nam pove: 600 mul, 3000 sklede)
            Mehanska dvigala za živali
            Pasti
            Nekaj ​​realistične, tridimenzionalne kulise

            Tukaj poiščite fotografije rimskih amfiteatrov

              V nadaljevanju imenovani histrioni in mimi - pozneje predvsem histrioni
              Večinoma moški - ženske so bile v mimiki
              Rocius, slaven, vzgojen v plemstvo
              Mimi pa so veljali za manjvredne, morda so bili sužnji.
              O velikosti zasedb vemo malo
              Zdi se, da je bil v 1. stoletju pred našim štetjem poudarjen »zvezdniški« izvajalec
              Teodora, zvezdniška igralka, se je poročila s cesarjem Justinijanom iz Vzhodnega cesarstva v 6. stoletju n.š., vendar se je morala odpovedati svojemu poklicu
              Večinoma grške tradicije - maske, podvojitev vlog
              Tragedija - počasen, dostojanstven, deklarativni podatek
              Komedija - hitrejša in pogovornejša
              Premiki se bodo verjetno povečali
              Igralci so se verjetno specializirali za eno vrsto drame, a za druge
              Predvaja, če so podani najljubši govori (brez poskusa "realizma")
              Mime, brez mask
              Grški ali rimski kostumi
              Veliko glasbe

            6. stoletje po Kr. Vzpon krščanstva

            Cesar Konstantin (324-337 n.št.) je krščanstvo legaliziral.

            Cesar Teodozij je prepovedal kakršno koli drugo čaščenje

            Do leta 400 n.št. so se številni festivali zmanjšali, zmanjšali - brez gladiatorjev do leta 404 n. ventiones (borbe živali) za 523, drugi pa so nadaljevali

              1. povezanost s poganskimi bogovi
              2. razuzdanost
              3. posmehovanje cerkve z mimiko (zakrament in krst)

              533 n.št. je zadnji zapis o nastopu v rimskem cesarstvu, omenjen v pismu.

              Projekt Didaskalia v Berkeleyju ima dragocen del o starodavnem rimskem gledališču - toplo priporočam, da obiščete to spletno mesto.

              Na podlagi učbeniškega gradiva lahko opravite kratke študijske kvize, tako da na našem učbeniku obiščete stran Študentski spletni učni center.

              Ta stran in vse povezane strani v tem imeniku so zaščitene z avtorskimi pravicami-Eric W. Trumbull, 1998-2007.


              Gallo -rimsko gledališče Vieux Poitiers - Naintré

              Na mestu, kjer se reki Clain in Vienne združita, mesto Vetus Pictavis sega skoraj 2000 let nazaj. Mesto se razprostira na 80 ha in izvira iz časov cesarja Avgusta Cezarja.

              Na jugovzhodu boste videli ostanke 116-metrskega amfiteatra, ki lahko sprejme več kot 10.000 gledalcev, kar nam daje predstavo o ogromnih spomenikih, ki so jih takrat galo-rimljani zgradili za javno zabavo.

              Arheološka izkopavanja so odkrila dokaze o starodavnem vsakdanjem življenju okoli gledališča, vključno z dobro urejenimi ulicami, hišami, templji, obrtniško četrtjo z lončarskimi stojnicami in pečmi. Mesto je stalo na rimski cesti od Poitiersa do Toursa, bistvenega položaja za trgovanje z Rimom, vendar ga je proti koncu 2. stoletja požar uničil požar.

              Tudi na tem mestu: menhir s keltskim napisom, napisanim z rimskimi črkami.

              V bližini: Châtellerault z bogato arhitekturno dediščino, Muzej avtomobilov, motociklov in koles ter center za vodno plavanje.

              Območja dediščine - Châtellerault et ses environs
                Archigny
                Availles-en-Châtellerault
                Bonneuil-Matours
                Châtellerault
                Guerche (La)
                Ingrandes-sur-Vienne
                Leigné-sur-Usseau
                Naintré
                Ormes (Les)
                Oyré
                Senillé Saint-Sauveur
                Thuré
              Naintré

              Placé sur l 'axe Paris-Bordeaux, Naintré se nahaja na 25 km od Poitiersa, 75 km od Tours et jouxte au sud l 'agglomération de Châtellerault.

              • Najbolj priljubljena
              • Game Parc, notranji kompleks za prosti čas
              • Dan v Center Parcs Domaine du Bois aux Daims
              • Tečaj uganke v Château de Monthoiron
              • Monkey Valley
              • Le Cormenierjev muzej
              • Rekreacijsko območje na prostem Saint-Cyr
              • DéfiPlanet ' v Diennéju: park za prosti čas
              • Opatija Saint Savin-sur-Gartempe
              • Velikani neba
              • Železniško kolo VéloRail de Chauvigny
              • Tematski park Futuroscope
              • Zdraviliški vir La Roche-Posay
              • Roc aux Sorciers Center za interpretacijo prazgodovinskega kiparstva
              • Cvetlični vrt La Belle
              • Namestitev
              • Odkrijte
              • Restavracije in lokalni proizvodi
              • Koledar dogodkov
              • Infos sledi

              Dobrodošli v la Vienne

              Ta spletna stran je vaš potni list za užitke La Vienne, nenehno spreminjajoče se destinacije, zaradi katere se naši obiskovalci vračajo po še več.


              Vienne Roman Theatre - Zgodovina

              Poglavje 13: Zgodnjerimska drama in gledališče


              I. Uvod: Pregled rimske drame

              Ko se Rim začne in konča z njim Romuli, tako da njegova drama in gledališče prav tako krožita skozi stoletja. Tradicionalno obstajajo tri glavne faze razvoja:

              1) zgodnje obdobje (pred 240 pr. N. Št.), Ko domača italijanska drama, kot so Atellanove farse, phlyaces in fesceninski verzi so prevladovali na rimskem odru

              2) obdobje literarna drama (240 pr

              3) renesansa priljubljena zabava (približno 100 pr. n. št. - 476 n. št.), ko so se tradicionalne rimske jedi, kot so cirkusi, očala in mimika, vrnile v ospredje zabavne scene.

              Tretja faza je daleč najdaljša in zajema vso rimsko zgodovino od njene najvišje točke v prvem stoletju pred našim štetjem do tako imenovanega civilizacijskega padca in padca v petem stoletju n. Verjetno bi lahko dodali četrto fazo, in sicer bizantinsko zabavo, ki se je osredotočala na dirke mima in vozov, kar je v bistvu podaljšek prejšnjega obdobja popularne zabave. Tako je jasno, da so rimski okusi gravitirali k cirkusom, športu in širokim komedijam, ki ustvarjajo tiste helenizirane latinske drame, na katerih naša pozornost danes počiva predvsem —, ki predstavljajo veliko večino ohranjenih pisav —malo kot kratek vmes v obliki zabave velika večina Rimljanov je čez čas raje izbrala spektakel.

              Zgodovina rimskega gledališča na prvi pogled predstavlja temeljni problem: dokazi za gledališče ne sovpadajo s tistimi za dramo. To pomeni, da večina besedil, ki jih imamo danes, izvira iz druge faze (doba literarne drame v drugem in tretjem stoletju pred našim štetjem), medtem ko vsa obstoječa rimska gledališča datirajo bistveno kasneje in morda sploh niso bila zgrajena za dramske predstave . S tem je težko rekonstruirati dinamiko rimskih scenskih del. Čeprav bi lahko podobno rekli o stari Grčiji, je gotovo, da so bila grška postklasična gledališča vsaj do neke mere zasnovana za izvedbo iger. V Rimu takšnega jamstva ni.

              To neskladje med fizičnimi in literarnimi dokazi v veliki meri izhaja iz dvojne narave rimskega gledališča, ki je samo razvejanost družbenega konteksta starega Rima. Literarna drama je bila večinoma namenjena višjim slojem. Plautova komedija, pa čeprav se nam zdi nizka, je bila namenjena gledalcem, ki so pripravljeni poslušati besede in slediti zgodbi, v nasprotju z gledanjem akrobatov, sprehajalcev po vrvi in ​​gladiatorjev.

              Terencove igre gredo še dlje in pozivajo k dejanskemu razmišljanju o človekovem stanju, kar so nedvomno storile tudi rimske tragedije, napisane v pozni republiki, od katerih so mnoge temeljile na grških mitih in drami. Na žalost se ni ohranila nedotaknjena niti ena takšna igra. Nasprotno pa so velike arene po vsem rimskem svetu, za katere je Kolosej najbolj viden opomnik, gostile športne dogodke in spektakle. Mnogi od teh preživijo, a če so sploh kdaj postregli s kakšnimi gledališkimi predstavami, je bila to bolj verjetno mimika kot kakšen žanr klasične drame.

              Tako je dobro regulirana in prodorna kasta rimske družbe in taka togost bila relikt zgodnje republike in njeni konflikti med patriciji in plebejci — so nagovarjali različne vrste zabave za različne sloje gledalcev. To ne pomeni, da ni prišlo do prekrivanja, ampak le, da je ločevanje rimskih družbenih redov predvidilo in okrepilo različne zvrsti performansa. Je preveč poenostavljeno, a kljub temu zelo resnična resnica, če trdimo, da je bila zabava v Rimu razdeljena med & quotreaders & quot in & quotviewers, to je pismeno plemstvo in neoprano mafijo. Za razliko od grškega sveta pa je resna drama lahko obstala v srcih in mislih rimske javnosti le kakšno stoletje. Tako so se v Rimu predstave, osredotočene na govorjeno besedo, hitro dvignile in skoraj tako hitro potonile na priljubljeno zabavno sceno, edini in edini trajni vidik zgodovine rimskega gledališča.


              II. Domača italijanska drama (pred 240 pr. N. Št.)

              Obstaja nekaj dokazov, da so bili Rimljani prvič izpostavljeni javnim zabavam ne Grkov, ki so kolonizirali južno Italijo, ampak Etruščane na severu. V šestem in petem stoletju pred našim štetjem je etruščanska kultura obilo različnih predstav, ki so vključevale zlasti petje, ples in atletska tekmovanja. Na stenah starodavne grobnice v Etruriji so slike glasbenikov, športnih dogodkov in gledalcev, ki sedijo na lesenih klopeh. Zato se zdi smiselno sklepati, da je tesen stik s to civilizacijo že v zgodnji zgodovini spodbudil ljubezen Rimljanov do iste. (opomba) To, da so njihovi kasnejši festivali pogosto predstavljali zabavo, kot so cirkusi, konjske dirke, boks in rokoborba, kaže, kako globoko so se v rimskem značaju ukoreninile etruščanske navade.

              Nadaljnji dokaz te povezave je v več besedah, uvoženih iz etruščanske v latinščino: histrio iz etruščanske ister pomeni & quotperformer —da nam daje & quotistrionics — in persona iz etruščanske phersu pomen & quotmask, masked dancer & & quot; prednik angleških besed & quotperson & quot in & quotpersonality. & quot histrio in persona dobro prilegajo splošni sliki etruščanske kulturne hegemonije v zgodnjem Rimu. Hkrati pa je v latinščini veliko več izrazov v zvezi z dramo, ki izvirajo iz grščine kot etruščancev, kar je prepričljiv dokaz, da je poznejši grški vpliv na rimsko gledališče zmagal nad vsem, kar so Rimljani doživeli v svoji zgodnji evoluciji. Skratka, obseg vpliva Etruščanov na zgodnjerimsko gledališče je težko oceniti, ker se je zgodil tako blizu prazgodovine, ko so bili Rimljani še zelo majhno in nepomembno pleme.

              Razvoj staroselske rimske drame ni nič manj težko rekonstruirati, še posebej, ker noben dramski scenarij iz tega obdobja ni preživel. Kasnejši Rimljani v času zgodnjega cesarstva (okoli prvega stoletja našega štetja) so bili prav tako radovedni, kot smo mi, o izvoru njihove drame in so raziskovali zgodovino uprizoritve v prvotnem Rimu, očitno z malo večjim dobičkom kot mi. Njihove teorije so pogosto nepopolne in protislovne, kar daje vtis, da niti v prvem stoletju pred našim štetjem jasni in prepričljivi dokazi o naravi zgodnjerimskega gledališča niso obstajali.

              Na primer, klasični latinski avtorji, kot sta Horace in Livy, postavljajo izvor rimske drame v nastopih na podeželskih festivalih, žetvah in porokah. To je točno tisto, kar bi kdo uganil, če ni trdnih podatkov — Primerjava z Aristotelovo domnevo o tragediji in ditirambu je očitna — in za utemeljitev svojih trditev omenjajo različne vrste zgodnjerimske zabave, npr. Fesceninski verzi, navidezno sklicevanje na Fescennium, mesto v južni Etruriji. Čeprav se niso ohranili zgodnji fesceninski verzi, so nam povedali, da gre za improvizirane predstave kmečkih klovnov, ki so uporabili različne pesniške metre, se posmehovali posameznikom, uporabljali nespodobnosti in govorili izmenično.

              Ko se vse skupaj sešteje, je podobnost z zgodnjim grškim gledališčem, zlasti staro komedijo, pregledna in zgovorna, zaradi česar so ti podatki videti sumljivi. Videti je kot poskus poznejših Rimljanov, da bi izumili nekakšno "rojstvo" za svoje gledališče, in ker ni resničnih dokazov, je bil zgrajen scenarij za pojav te umetnosti v zgodnjem Rimu, zgodovinske fikcije, ki je vzporedna z vzponom drame v Grčiji. Še več, ko drugi viri trdijo, da je vsebina fesceninskih verzov v nekem trenutku tako ušla izpod nadzora, da jo je bilo treba nadzorovati z zakonom, je situacija zelo podobna prehodu iz stare v srednjegrško komedijo in se spomnite Platonijeve pripombe, da to ni mogoče & quotto če se kdo posmehuje, bi tožil pesnike na sodišču & quot; —, le povečuje vtis, da je vse to le legenda, izposojena od Grkov za zapolnitev zgodovinske praznine.

              Konkretnejše podatke najdemo v drugih virih, zlasti v arheoloških. V času prve republike (500–250 pr. N. Št.) Je v Italiji obstajala posebna vrsta tragične parodije, imenovane hilarotragodia (& quot smešna tragedija & quot) oz phlyax igra (& quotgossip-igre, & quot pl. phlyaces), ali tako pravijo nekateri viri. Ime enega avtorja je pravzaprav zabeleženo —Rhinthon iz Sirakuze (Sicilija) — skupaj z več naslovi iger, ki temu žanru, če nič drugega, daje večjo zgodovinsko verodostojnost kot fesceninski verzi. (Opomba)

              Tem phlyaces Znanstveniki so vezali vrsto vaz, najdenih v južni Italiji, ki prikazujejo farsične prizore iz drame, zlasti mitološke burleske. Medtem ko to združenje ni ostalo nesporno, drugi znanstveniki trdijo, da južnoitalijanske vaze prikazujejo predstave Stare komedije, zlasti Aristofana, kjer je živelo veliko Grkov, in ti artefakti dajejo jasen in viden dokaz, da je nekakšna komična predstava igrala Italijanu, če ne latinsko govoreči, javni v četrtem stoletju pr. (opomba) Toda "latinsko govoreče" je bistveno za nastanek rimske drame, ker je jezik bistven za gledališče.

              Other evidence suggests that the Etruscans continued to play an important role in Roman life well after their fabled expulsion from Rome in 510 BCE. For instance, in 364 BCE when Rome was threatened by a plague, the Romans reportedly called in Etruscan dancers to appease the gods. Later in 264 BCE—that is, exactly one century later which casts serious doubt on the reliability of the dating—the Romans imported gladiators into their city from Etruria, apparently beginning their long love affair with faux-combat spectacles.

              More immediately pertinent to theatre history was, however, the presence and influence of the Oscans, a people who lived southeast of Rome. Having overpopulated for some reason in the 300's BCE and spreading southwest, the Oscans overran the Greek settlements near Naples, which brought them into contact with Rome, on the southern end of the Roman frontier. Shortly thereafter an "Oscan" form of drama is said to have arisen in Rome.

              Poimenovan Atellan farce (in Latin, Atellana [pl. Atellanae]) after the Oscan town of Atella, this type of comedy featured the "crazy" people who lived in Atella, a place where things were purported to happen backwards, at least by Roman standards—much modern ethnic humor, such as "Pollack jokes," works on the same principle—and while no Atellan farce survives from antiquity, what little of its content we comprehend makes it fascinating, especially because it seems to have shared features with other genres of comedy. For instance, it had a repeating cast of characters, like those in Greek New Comedy but broad caricatures of the sort seen in Old Comedy. We even know some of these characters' names and their comic types. Maccus, for instance, is a clown, Bucco a stupid braggart, Dossenus a glutton, and Pappus a foolish old man.

              But if Atellan farce resembles anything in theatre history, it is no form of ancient drama but commedia dell'arte of the modern age, a type of comedy which arose in late Renaissance Italy and achieved widespread popularity across Europe. In particular, the plot structures and the nature and demeanor of certain characters are remarkably similar. For instance, the physical resemblance of Dossenus from Atellan farce and Pulcinella from commedia dell'arte, both with large, hooked noses and bowed posture, is especially striking.

              How such a connection arose between these two genres, so removed from each other in time, is difficult to imagine. Was there a later Roman comic tradition which spanned the entire Middle Ages and carried these comic characters across nearly two millennia with remarkable continuity? If so, why is there no clear evidence of this in the historical record? Or do certain types of comedy and comic characterization have such enduring appeal in this part of the world that they will surface again and again, in spite of changes in the cultural climate? It is a question of diffusion versus independent origin—another lumper-splitter dilemma!—where no credible answer is possible in the absence of better evidence.

              Still, the success of Atellan Farce in early Rome is indisputable. It took nothing less than Greek-style drama, the fabulae palliatae—that is, "pallium-wearing" plays or dramas in which the characters wear Greek attire—to steal center stage from Atellanae. (note) In other words, only something as compelling as Latin adaptations of Greek comedies with all their sophisticated plots and characters could lure the Roman audience away from Atellan farce, and then but briefly when seen from the larger perspective of history, for the fabulae palliatae reigned only from 240 BCE to around 120 BCE, little over a century which is a relatively short life span for a theatrical genre. Both before and after this age of literary drama, the Roman public favored native types of comic theatre.

              After the fall of the palliatae in the early decades of the first century BCE, Atellan farce rose again to prominence, especially in the hands of two pre-eminent dramatists, Novius in Pomponius. These contemporaries of Sulla, who is said have composed Atellanae himself, wrote "literary" Atellan farces, if such a thing is imaginable. At present, it is impossible to gauge their work because none of it survives. Nevertheless, though such a thing as high-brow Atellan farce may be difficult for us to conceive—especially when there are titles like Sargeant Maccus, Maccus Girl, in The Brothers Macci—the data make it clear that there were, in fact, erudite Atellan farces. The preservation of quotations from Atellanae written in this age leave no doubt about that. (note)

              After a generation or so, Atellan farce again faded from general interest, only to be revived once more at the height of the Pax Romana. During the reign of Domitian (81-96 CE) and later that of Hadrian (117-138 CE), Atellanae appeared again, this time filled with spectacle, as most forms of entertainment were in that day. Following that, Atellan farce died out forever, unless it is the distant forebear of commedia dell'arte which arose well over a millennium later.

              Such was the theatre in ancient Rome before the rise of Hellenism and the importation of Greek drama. Broad comedy, it appears, predominated along with music and boisterous stage action, but none of these features can be termed original, or even distinctive, to Roman culture. The impressions of other civilizations—in particular, Etruscan, Oscan and Greek colonial—are already clearly visible in the early Romans' tastes in entertainment. Thus, the gates of Rome were wide open for other imports, and the most enduring, if not the longest-lived, was poised to make its mark, the drama of classical and post-classical Greece.

              No permanent theatre structure stood in the city of Rome until 55 BCE. Before that, many wooden theatres had risen and subsequently come down in quick succession. This stands in marked contrast to the rest of the Roman world where there were numerous permanent arenas, amphitheatres, stadia and playhouses constructed of stone and concrete, but none inside the city of Rome itself.

              The typically conservative and tradition-minded Romans of Republican times were suspicious of theatre's corrupting influence—or was it its anesthetizing esthetic?—a danger all the darker in the shadow of a permanent theatre, and their apprehension would not prove unwarranted. Theatre, as it turned out, was one of the major weapons used by the emperors of Rome to appease, placate and distract the mob and thus maintain a firm grip on the state. Ages ago, Pisistratus had shown the way: tyrants must control the media.

              Given the absence of any evidence for a permanent structure in which to house drama within the city of Rome up to 55 BCE, historians face a very complicated task in reconstructing the course of early Roman theatre. Worse yet, most play texts date to more than a century earlier so that the physical and literary evidence are severely disconnected. In such a situation, we have little choice but to assume that Imperial theatre buildings resembled their Republican predecessors. If not, it is impossible to ground our understanding of Roman theatre history in primary evidence.

              Sad to say, common sense dictates otherwise. Temporary theatres, as all Republican ones were, must have been variable in style: built, no doubt, for special occasions in accordance with changing tastes and the specific venue of performance, and thereafter readily demolished. In such a situation, conformity to any predictable or set pattern, much less general uniformity of disposition, seems unlikely, no more than modern parade floats can be expected to exhibit a strict regularity in their construction.

              But modern parade floats do exhibit regularity in some respects—the expectations of viewers and the physical constraints of the art form limit their designers' creativity—and so it's not altogether baseless to try to bridge the gap between the preserved texts and the remains of Roman theatres. At the same time, a special caution is called for because of the difficulties and ambiguities inherent in this vexing situation. All the alarms necessary when one treads into speculation must be raised to their highest levels of alert.

              Most extant Roman theatres share certain features. Like Greek acting spaces, they tend to have a roofed house called the scaena (the Latin translation of skene pl. scaenae) at the back of the stage. The scaenae frons ("the face of the scaena"), the front wall of the scaena building, was at times immense—in some theatres as high as three stories!—and at least one surviving theatre has a scaena with stairs back stage for the actors to climb to the upper levels where there must have been a balcony of sorts on which they could perform.

              On the ground level, Roman scaenae usually included three doors, the center one often magnificently ornate and well disposed to grand entrances. The façade of many scaenae was recessed, presumably to permit the illusion of eavesdropping. The stage itself, called the pulpitum, included versurae ("wings"), each with an entrance.

              Thus, the Roman playwright had as many as five different ways for his characters to enter the stage, comparable to the three doors and two parodoi available to later Greek dramatists. Because no known early Latin drama calls for so many different entrances, the Republican theatre probably had fewer, which does not inspire confidence in associating early dramatic scripts with later imperial edifices. But without better evidence we have no other option but to keep trying to link stones and Latin.

              While the Roman theatre had an orchestra below and in front of the pulpitum, it was not regularly used by the performers but served as a seating area for dignitaries. Since the chorus had ceased to be a force in the theatre long before the dawn of literary drama in Rome—had the cost of the chorus become at last prohibitive?—there were no longer choristers who needed room to dance, not in drama at least. It is always possible other types of entertainment called for using the orchestra as a performance space, so we cannot say with certainty it was always used for seating.

              Except for the dignitaries seated in the orchestra, the viewers sat in a large round auditorium called the cavea ("hollow"). In accordance with Roman custom, the seating there was segregated into social classes, sometimes gender, too. Early on, these seats were made of wood—only later did stone seating come into fashion—much the way Greek theatres evolved. But unlike their Greek counterparts, Roman theatres were not necessarily built into hillsides, rather in open, public spaces, usually in well-populated areas, such as city centers, where a great number of people had ready access to the entertainments presented there.

              These high-rise urban theatres were made possible through the Romans' invention and widespread use of concrete which allowed the construction of multi-level structures independent of local topography. Indeed, some of the Romans' more ingenious applications of the concrete arch and vault are to be found in their enormous theatres and amphitheatres, the seating capacities of which far exceeded their Greek equivalents. The Colosseum, for example, in downtown Rome could house more than fifty thousand spectators, three times what the Theatre of Dionysus in Athens held. No wonder, then, Roman dignitaries wanted to sit in the orchestra where such a large slice of the public could watch them as they watched the play—it is hard to imagine better publicity—so by its very station in the heart of the city Roman theatre evolved into a regular feature of civic life in the Roman Empire. Depending on one's political sentiments, that was or was not a good thing.

              All in all, the nature and uses of theatre during the preceding age, the Republic, is a matter of debate. How acting spaces were arranged, how long they were used before being torn down and the extent to which they were adapted for particular productions is lost history which will probably never to be recovered and leaves behind many important questions. Were they, for instance, flimsy structures rebuilt for every change of play? One historian warns that "we should avoid any tendency to equate ‘temporary' with ‘crude' and ‘unsophisticated'." (note) True, but the exact nature of that sophistication is what lies at the core of the issue, and that is a tantalizing mystery.

              What je certain is that outdoor theatres not constructed of stone would require at least some degree of rebuilding, if for no other reason than simple wear-and-tear. And because during this age theatre was also a burgeoning enterprise in Rome, it seems all the more likely that the structures themselves underwent constant refurbishment. So, with Roman Republican theatre apparently in continual flux, the stages of its evolution, even the larger ones, lie beyond our grasp.

              Though clouded, our view of early Roman theatre buildings is not, however, entirely obscured. As called for in the dramas which have been preserved, the staging itself hints at certain features which must have been present in Republican theatre. For instance, there are relatively few props necessary in producing any early Roman drama and all but no application of scenery to plot, which argues for minimal sets and stage decor. Moreover, that the dramatic texts invariably dictate when to bring props on and off the stage argues that there was no curtain or the like whereby the stage could be set or cleared out of the audience's sight. (note)

              Furthermore, when the Romans began adapting Greek drama, they naturally carried over with it those features peculiar to Greek theatre, particularly post-classical or Hellenistic practices. For instance, as in Menandrean comedy, the Roman comic playwrights Plautus and Terence often envisioned the stage as depicting a city street and the entrances as doors to private homes or public shrines. The wing exits frequently represented the way to town and the harbor, or to the market and the country, with some notable variations called for in particular plays.

              Although it is unclear how realistic these depictions were meant to be envisioned in terms of scenery and set pieces, it is notable that the plays themselves often carefully lay out in their language all extraordinary features of the landscape. That argues that the scene was ne represented on stage, rather that the audience relied on the spoken word to imagine the setting. On much the same sort of minimal stage and relying on the power of language in much the same way, Shakespeare produced his dramas, to considerable effect.

              But one feature of the early Roman stage seems to have been actually visible and tangible and, more important, historical. Characters in Roman Comedy sometimes use—and sometimes abuse—an oltar during the course of a play. At the end of Plautus' Mostellaria ("The Haunted House"), for example, the rascally slave Tranio flees to an altar as a refuge from his enraged master Theopropides who is threatening to beat him. There, the altar functions as a sort of asylum saving the slave from punishment and, given the high emotions of the scene, we must assume it was a real, not imaginary structure on the stage.

              Other evidence supports this assumption. That most Roman comedies were presented in the context of a funeral or religious festival of some sort argues for the presence of an actual altar in the general environs. How the Roman priesthood felt about the employment of the altar for comical purposes is another thought-provoking but unanswerable question about theatre in this age.

              C. Producers, Directors and Actors

              With little evidence for realistic set design or ample props, the scripts of Roman Comedy seem to suggest that there was little expense incurred in Republican theatrical productions. But all other evidence speaks to the contrary. As early as 186 BCE, the Roman Senate imposed measures on producers to curb their spending on ludi ("games, plays"), by which it is always possible that the senators did not mean the types of Roman Comedy preserved today but some other sort of entertainment. Kljub temu pa ludi must refer to something presented on the stage and the fabulae palliatae cannot be ruled out.

              Moreover, expensive spectacles were a way for an ambitious Roman politician to win over poor voters and thus gain high office. This, in turn, led to elected officials extorting provinces in an attempt to pay the debts incurred from mounting the exorbitant games they had previously lavished on the public. Thus, the Senate's legislation attempting to limit theatre-related expenditures may not be so much an attempt to rein in theatre itself but to counteract the consequences of such extravagance. There is all but no evidence that it achieved that aim.

              For a host of different reasons, Roman greed bled many provinces dry over the course of the late Republic. Historical data show that, far from being curbed, theatrical productions continued to escalate in both expense and grandeur. In 99 BCE, for instance, one Claudius Pulcher displayed a memorable scaenae frons that had been elaborately painted.

              Again, in 70 BCE awnings (vela) were added above the cavea of a Roman theatre to protect viewers from the elements. Marcus Aemilius Scaurus produced a three-tiered scaenae frons in 58 BCE made of marble, glass and gilded wood. Shortly thereafter, Gaius Curio built back-to-back hemispherical theatres that could be rotated so as to form an amphitheatre. Excess was, clearly, intrinsic in Roman theatre.

              But ingenuity and adaptability were also hallmarks of Italian stagecraft. Unfortunately, what plays, or even what vrste of plays, were being performed in these architectural and engineering marvels—if they were built for drama at all—is unknown, only that the attraction to the Romans in these theatres was their "special effects," not their capacity to realize a thought-provoking script. That much at least is clear, as one modern scholar notes:

              Theatrical activity was intimately connected with three interlocking facets of Roman life: worship of Gods, the honouring of the dead, and individual self-glorification, or, put another way, with religious ceremonial, eulogy of the family and vote-winning. All three aspects tended to stimulate and encourage extravagant display and excessive expenditure, and what evidence we have suggests that such display and expenditure were regular features of theatrical shows from a very early period. (note)

              It will make sense, then, that acting in Rome was the domain of professionals, almost from the outset. While there is some evidence that amateurs performed in early Atellan farces, the performance of plays in Rome was left largely to specialists, at least some of whom were slaves. These indentured thespians often traveled in a troupe called a grex (literally, "a flock," i.e. of sheep), with a leader who was called a dominus ("master"). The choice of words clearly shows the Romans' general contempt for performers, evidenced also in the insult hurled at Mark Antony that his friends were actors. Still, some Roman stars of the stage were widely known and well-respected, a few even belonging to the middle class.

              Several important questions surround actors and the nature of performance in Rome. One is whether or not they wore masks on stage. While there is no direct evidence for their use in Roman Comedy, there is some evidence to the contrary. A passage from Terence's Phormio, in which a character's facial expressions is described as changing, appears to make a compelling case for the absence of masks, until, of course, one realizes that the description may be a sophisticated metatheatrical gag playing on the inability of the actor to change his facial expression.

              The real question, however, centers not on the use but the application of masks on the Roman stage. In Greek comedy they are essential in role-changing because they allow performers, in accordance with the three-actor rule, to play multiple characters within a single drama. But there is clearly no such restriction in Roman Comedy where as many as six speaking characters—though to many is very rare—appear on stage at once. (note) Nevertheless, if Roman actors in palliatae played multiple roles, it argues in favor of the deployment of masks which would greatly enhance the dramatic illusion.

              Certainly, nothing in the comedies themselves absolutely forbids their use. Masks are, furthermore, useful in helping men play women's roles—just as on the Greek stage, there were no female performers in Roman Comedy—and aid also in distinguishing character-types for the sizeable crowds playwrights like Plautus are said to have drawn. Given all this and the tradition of mask-wearing in Atellan farce, logic dictates that the Roman stage did indeed call for masks in performance, though admittedly the evidence is far from conclusive.

              D. Conclusion: A Roman Theatre (at last!)

              The turning point in Roman theatre construction came in the last days of the Republic, when the first permanent theatre was finally built in the city of Rome. None other than Pompey himself instigated and oversaw its construction, in the days of his greatest glory after he had triumphed more than once. For a man who had spent many years outside Rome, the absence of an impressive, permanent theatre in his home town, the imminent capital of the ancient world, must have seemed appalling.

              So, while Caesar was off conquering Gaul, an unwitting Senate approved plans for what was later called the Theatre of Pompey but looked at first to them like a temple dedicated to Venus, the Roman goddess of love. When conservative senators and Pompey's political adversaries realized, too late, that there was a theatre attached to the temple—what had appeared to be steps leading up to the temple turned out, in fact, to be the seats of a theatre!—their protests were too late and under the guise of a temple a stone theatre arose at last in downtown Rome.

              A generation later, Rome housed two more, as a great age of theatre construction all over the Mediterranean world dawned. The next three centuries, the first of the modern age, witnessed in more ways than one the erection of many commanding Roman theatres. It is these we see and tread today amidst the ruins of the grandeur that once was Rome.

              Terms, Places, People and Things to Know
              Native Italian Drama
              Literary Drama
              Popular Entertainment
              Histrio
              Persona
              Fescennine Verses
              Fescennium
              Hilarotragodia/Phlyax Plays (Phlyaces)
              Rhinthon of Syracuse
              Oscans
              Atella
              Atellan Farce (Atellenae)
              Maccus
              Commedia dell'Arte
              Fabulae Palliatae
              Novius
              Pomponius
              Scaena
              Scaenae Frons
              Pulpitum
              Versurae
              Orchestra
              Cavea
              Concrete
              Altar
              Grex
              Dominus
              Theatre of Pompey

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              This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.


              Sources

              Margarete Bieber, The History of the Greek and Roman Theatre (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961).

              John Evans, The Empress Theodora: Partner of Justinian (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002).

              Charles Garton, Personal Aspects of the Roman Theatre (Toronto: Hakkert, 1972).

              Timothy J. Moore, The Theater of Plautus: Playing to the Audience (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998).

              John Wright, Dancing in Chains: The Stylistic Unity of the Comoedia Palliata (Rome: American Academy in Rome, Papers and Monographs, 1974).


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