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6. september 1939

6. september 1939


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6. september 1939

Septembra 1939

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Zgodovina Poljske (1939–1945)

Zgodovina Poljske od 1939 do 1945 zajema predvsem obdobje od invazije nacistične Nemčije in Sovjetske zveze na Poljsko do konca druge svetovne vojne. Po nemško-sovjetskem paktu o nenapadanju je 1. septembra 1939 nacistična Nemčija napadla Poljsko, 17. septembra pa Sovjetska zveza. Kampanje so se končale v začetku oktobra, ko sta Nemčija in Sovjetska zveza razdelili in priključili celotno Poljsko. Po napadu osi na Sovjetsko zvezo poleti 1941 je Nemčijo okupirala celotno Poljsko, ki je nadaljevala svojo rasno in genocidno politiko po vsej Poljski. V času dveh okupacij so poljski državljani utrpeli ogromne človeške in materialne izgube. Po ocenah Inštituta za nacionalni spomin je zaradi nemške okupacije umrlo približno 5,6 milijona poljskih državljanov, okoli 150.000 pa zaradi sovjetske okupacije. [1] Nemci so Judje izločili za hitro in popolno uničenje, okoli 90 odstotkov poljskih Judov (skoraj tri milijone ljudi) pa je bilo pomorjenih v okviru holokavsta. Ubiti so bili Judje, Poljaki, Romi in zaporniki številnih drugih narodnosti množično v nacističnih taboriščih za iztrebljanje, kot so Auschwitz, Treblinka in Sobibór. Etnični Poljaki so bili tako nacistično nemško kot sovjetski preganjani. Nemci so pobili približno dva milijona etničnih Poljakov. Imeli so prihodnje načrte, da bodo preostalo večino Poljakov spremenili v suženjsko delo in uničili tiste, ki jih kot "nezaželene" dojemajo kot del širše Generalplan Ost. Etnično čiščenje in poboji Poljakov in v manjši meri Ukrajincev so bili storjeni v zahodni Ukrajini (predvojni poljski Kresy) od leta 1943. Poljake so ubili ukrajinski nacionalisti.

Septembra 1939 so uradniki poljske vlade poiskali zatočišče v Romuniji, vendar je njihova kasnejša internacija preprečila nameravano nadaljevanje v tujini kot poljska vlada. General Władysław Sikorski, nekdanji premier, je prišel v Francijo, kjer je bila kmalu ustanovljena nadomestna poljska vlada v izgnanstvu. Po padcu Francije je bila vlada evakuirana v Veliko Britanijo. Poljske oborožene sile so bile obnovljene in so se skupaj z zahodnimi zavezniki borile v Franciji, Veliki Britaniji in drugod. Odporniško gibanje se je začelo organizirati na Poljskem leta 1939, kmalu po invazijah. Njegova največja vojaška komponenta je bila del mreže organizacij in dejavnosti poljske podzemne države in je postala znana kot Domača vojska. Celotno tajno strukturo je uradno vodila vlada v izgnanstvu prek svoje delegacije s prebivališčem na Poljskem. Obstajajo tudi kmečke, desne, levičarske, judovske in sovjetske partizanske organizacije. Med neuspešnimi protinemškimi vstajami sta bili vstaja v Varšavskem getu in Varšavska vstaja. Cilj Varšavske vstaje je bil preprečiti prevlado Sovjetske zveze na Poljskem.

Da bi po operaciji Barbarossa sodelovali s Sovjetsko zvezo, se je Sikorski, pomemben vojni zaveznik Zahoda, v Moskvi pogajal z Jožefom Stalinom in dogovorili so se, da bodo v Sovjetski zvezi oblikovali poljsko vojsko, ki naj bi se skupaj z vojno borila na vzhodni fronti. Sovjeti. "Andersovo vojsko" so namesto tega odpeljali na Bližnji vzhod in nato v Italijo. Nadaljnja prizadevanja za nadaljevanje poljsko-sovjetskega sodelovanja so bila neuspešna zaradi nesoglasij glede meja, odkritja Katinskega poboja poljskih ujetnikov, ki so ga zagrešili Sovjeti, in smrti generala Sikorskega. Nato je v procesu, ki so ga mnogi Poljaki videli kot zahodno izdajo, poljska vlada v izgnanstvu postopoma prenehala biti priznan partner v zavezniški koaliciji.

Stalin je s pooblastilom poljskih komunistov olajšal oblikovanje poljske vlade, neodvisne od vlade izgnanstva v Londonu (in v nasprotju z njo). Med poljskimi komunističnimi organizacijami, ustanovljenimi med vojno, sta bili Poljska delavska stranka na okupirani Poljski in Zveza poljskih domoljubov v Moskvi. V Sovjetski zvezi je bila ustanovljena nova poljska vojska, ki se je borila skupaj s Sovjeti. Hkrati je Stalin delal na sodelovanju z zahodnimi zavezniki (Združene države pod vodstvom predsednika Franklina D. Roosevelta in Združeno kraljestvo s premierjem Winstonom Churchillom), ki so se v smislu praktične izvedbe skladale s Stalinovimi pogledi na poljsko meje in prihodnjo vlado. Usoda Poljske je bila določena v seriji pogajanj, ki so vključevala konference v Teheranu, na Jalti in v Potsdamu. Leta 1944 je poljska vlada v izgnanstvu odobrila in podzemlje na Poljskem je sprejelo enostranska politična in vojaška dejanja, namenjena vzpostavitvi neodvisne poljske oblasti, vendar so sovjetska prizadevanja onemogočila. Poljski komunisti so leta 1943/44 v okupirani Varšavi ustanovili Državni državni svet in julija 1944 v Lublinu po prihodu sovjetske vojske Poljski odbor za narodno osvoboditev. Sovjetska zveza je obdržala vzhodno polovico predvojne Poljske, Poljski pa je namesto tega podelila večji južni del izločene nemške Vzhodne Prusije in državo premaknila proti zahodu na črto Oder – Neisse na stroške Nemčije.


Nemško -sovjetska pogodba o prijateljstvu

Nemško-sovjetska pogodba o prijateljstvu je bila skrivni dodatni protokol Hitlerjevega in Stalinovega pakta iz leta 1939, ki sta ga 28. septembra 1939 podpisala nacistična Nemčija in Sovjetska zveza po njuni skupni invaziji in okupaciji suverene Poljske, ki je razmejila interesna področja med dve moči.

Učni cilji

Argumentirajte za in proti odločitvi Sovjetske zveze o podpisu Pogodbe o prijateljstvu s tretjim rajhom

Ključni odlomki

Ključne točke

  • Nemško-sovjetska pogodba o prijateljstvu, sodelovanju in razmejitvi je bila skrivni dodatni protokol Pakta Hitler-Stalin iz leta 1939, ki sta ga 28. septembra 1939 spremenila nacistična Nemčija in Sovjetska zveza po njuni skupni invaziji in okupaciji suverene Poljske.
  • Te spremembe so omogočile izmenjavo sovjetskih in nemških državljanov med dvema okupiranima območjema Poljske, preoblikovale dele srednjeevropskih interesnih področij, ki jih narekuje pakt Molotov – Ribbentrop, in navedle, da nobena pogodbenica na svojem ozemlju ne bo dovolila nobenega “Poljska agitacija ”, usmerjena na drugo stran.
  • Sovjetska vlada je obstoj tega tajnega protokola zanikala do leta 1989, ko je bil dokončno priznan in obsojen.
  • Pakt Molotov – Ribbentrop, znan tudi kot nacistično-sovjetski pakt, je bil pakt o nevtralnosti med nacistično Nemčijo in Sovjetsko zvezo, podpisan v Moskvi 23. avgusta 1939, ki je razmejil interesna področja obeh sil.

Ključni pogoji

  • Nemško-sovjetska mejna pogodba: Ta pogodba, znana tudi kot Nemško -sovjetska pogodba o prijateljstvu, sodelovanju in razmejitvi, je bila tajna klavzula, ki sta jo nacistična Nemčija in Sovjetska zveza 28. septembra 1939 spremenili po skupni invaziji in okupaciji suvereno Poljsko.
  • Pakt Molotov – Ribbentrop: Pakt o nevtralnosti med nacistično Nemčijo in Sovjetsko zvezo, podpisan v Moskvi 23. avgusta 1939.
  • Wehrmacht: Poenotene oborožene sile nacistične Nemčije od leta 1935 do 1946, vključno z vojsko (Heer), mornarico (Kriegsmarine) in letalstvom (Luftwaffe).

Nemško-sovjetska pogodba o prijateljstvu, sodelovanju in razmejitvi (pozneje znana kot Nemško-sovjetska mejna pogodba) je bila drugi dodatni protokol iz pakta Hitler-Stalin iz leta 1939. To je bila tajna klavzula, ki sta jo 28. septembra 1939 spremenili nacistična Nemčija in Sovjetska zveza po njuni skupni invaziji in okupaciji suverene Poljske in s tem po začetku druge svetovne vojne. Podpisala sta jo Joachim von Ribbentrop in Vyacheslav Molotov, zunanja ministra Nemčije oziroma Sovjetske zveze, v prisotnosti Jožefa Stalina. Pogodba je bila nadaljevanje prvega tajnega protokola pakta Molotov – Ribbentrop, podpisanega 23. avgusta 1939, med državama pred invazijo na Poljsko in začetkom druge svetovne vojne v Evropi. Javno je bil objavljen le majhen del protokola, ki je nadomestil prvo pogodbo, področja vpliva nacistične Nemčije in Sovjetske zveze pa so ostala tajna. Tretji tajni protokol pakta sta 10. januarja 1941 podpisala Friedrich Werner von Schulenberg in Molotov, v katerem se je Nemčija le nekaj mesecev pred protisovjetsko operacijo Barbarossa odrekla svojim zahtevam za dele Litve.

Skrivni članki

Pogodbi je bilo priloženih več tajnih členov. Te so omogočile izmenjavo sovjetskih in nemških državljanov med dvema okupiranima območjema Poljske, preoblikovale dele srednjeevropskih interesnih področij, ki jih narekuje pakt Molotov – Ribbentrop, in navedle, da nobena stran na svojem ozemlju ne bo dovolila nobene “poljske agitacije & #8221, namenjeno drugi stranki.

Med zahodno invazijo na Poljsko so Nemci Wehrmacht je prevzel nadzor nad Lublinskim in vzhodno Varšavskim vojvodstvom, ozemlji, ki so bila po paktu Molotov – Ribbentrop v sovjetskem vplivnem območju. Za nadomestilo Sovjetske zveze zaradi te izgube je tajna navezanost pogodbe iz Litve prenesla Litvo na sovjetsko vplivno področje, z izjemo majhnega ozemlja v regiji Suwałki, včasih znanega tudi pod imenom Suwałki trikotnik. Po tem prenosu je Sovjetska zveza Litvi postavila ultimatum, jo ​​zasedla 15. junija 1940 in ustanovila Litovsko SSR.

Sovjetska vlada je obstoj tega tajnega protokola zanikala do leta 1989, ko je bil dokončno priznan in obsojen. Nekaj ​​časa kasneje so novi ruski revizionisti, med njimi tudi zgodovinarja Alexander Dyukov in Nataliya Narotchnitskaya, opisali pakt kot nujen ukrep zaradi neuspeha Britancev in Francozov v sklenitvi protifašističnega pakta. Pakt je zagovarjal tudi Vladimir Putin.

Nemško -sovjetska pogodba o prijateljstvu: Sovjetski zunanji minister Vyacheslav Molotov podpisuje nemško-sovjetski pakt v Moskvi, 28. septembra 1939 za njim so Richard Schulze-Kossens (Ribbentropov in ađutant#8217), Boris Shaposhnikov (načelnik generalštaba Rdeče armade), Joachim von Ribbentrop, Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Pavlov (sovjetski prevajalec). Alexey Shkvarzev (sovjetski veleposlanik v Berlinu), stoji poleg Molotova.

Ozadje: Pakt Molotov-Ribbentrop

Pakt Molotov – Ribbentrop, znan tudi kot nacistično-sovjetski pakt, je bil pakt o nevtralnosti med nacistično Nemčijo in Sovjetsko zvezo, ki sta ga 23. avgusta 1939 v Moskvi podpisala zunanja ministra Joachim von Ribbentrop oziroma Vyacheslav Molotov.

Pakt je razmejil interesna področja med dvema silama, kar je potrdilo dodatni protokol nemško-sovjetske mejne pogodbe, spremenjen po skupni invaziji na Poljsko. Pakt je ostal v veljavi skoraj dve leti, dokler nemška vlada Adolfa Hitlerja med operacijo Barbarossa 22. junija 1941 ni napadla sovjetskih položajev na vzhodu Poljske.

Klavzule nacistično-sovjetskega pakta so zagotovile pisno jamstvo, da vsaka stran ne bojuje proti drug drugemu, in izjavljeno zavezo, da se nobena vlada ne bo povezala ali pomagala sovražniku druge strani. Poleg določb o nenapadanju je pogodba vključevala tudi skrivni protokol, ki je razdelil ozemlja Poljske, Litve, Latvije, Estonije, Finske in Romunije na nemško in sovjetsko “sfero vpliva, ” predvidevajoč “ teritorialno in politično preureditve ” teh držav. Nato je Nemčija 1. septembra 1939 napadla Poljsko. Vodja Sovjetske zveze Jožef Stalin je 17. septembra, dan po začetku veljavnosti sovjetsko -japonskega sporazuma o prekinitvi ognja, ukazal sovjetsko invazijo na Poljsko. Novembra je Sovjetska zveza po zimski vojni priključila dele jugovzhodne Finske. Sledile so sovjetske priključitve Estonije, Latvije, Litve in delov Romunije. Oglašena zaskrbljenost zaradi etničnih Ukrajincev in Belorusov je bila ponujena kot opravičilo za sovjetsko invazijo na Poljsko. Stalinova invazija na Bukovino leta 1940 je kršila pakt, saj je presegel sovjetsko področje vpliva, dogovorjeno z osjo.


Nemška invazija

Invazija na Poljsko, znana tudi kot septembrska ali poljska kampanja, je bila izhodišče druge svetovne vojne. Kmalu po podpisu Pakt Molotov-Ribbentrop, pogodbo o nenapadanju med Sovjetsko zvezo in Nemčijo, so Nemci 1. septembra napadli Poljsko. Kampanja se je končala več kot mesec dni kasneje, 6. oktobra, ko sta Nemčija in Sovjetska zveza državo razdelili pod Nemško-sovjetska mejna pogodba.

Pred invazijo se je domnevno 31. avgusta zgodil incident v Gleiwitzu z namenom ustvariti videz poljske agresije na Nemčijo. Prikriti nacistični Nemci so se predstavljali kot poljski državljani, ko so napadli nemško radijsko postajo, z namenom, da bi opravičili invazijo na Poljsko naslednji dan.

Zanimivo je, da bi se invazija začela 26. avgusta s prednostjo presenetljivih poljskih sil, vendar se je to izognilo, ko je Hitlerjev bližnji zaveznik Mussolini izjavil, da Italija ni pripravljena na vojno, Velika Britanija pa je razglasila vojaško zavezništvo s Poljsko.

Potem ko je dobil Mussolinijevo politično podporo, je Hitler zvestobo Poljske in Velike Britanije zavrnil kot "prazno gesto" in 1. septembra napadel Poljsko. Med napredovanjem invazije so poljske sile umaknile svoje baze pred poljsko-nemško mejo in bile poražene v bitki pri Bzuri, kar je Nemcem dalo prednost. Poljska je od zaveznikov Francije in Velike Britanije prejela omejeno pomoč, 17. septembra pa je sovjetska Rdeča armada napadla Vzhodno Poljsko Sfera vpliva. Po porazu v bitki pri Kocku 6. oktobra so nemške in sovjetske sile dobile popoln nadzor nad Poljsko.


Invazija na Poljsko - časovnica druge svetovne vojne (1. september 1939 - 6. oktober 1939)

Nemška ofenziva na zahodu se je začela 1. septembra, kasneje pa je 17. septembra sledila sovjetska ofenziva na vzhodu.

Nemški voditelj Adolf Hitler je razumel, da je njegovo splošno osvajanje Evrope temeljilo na nevtralizaciji Poljske na vzhodu, pridobivanju zagotovil o nenapadanju od Sovjetov in pripravi na boj proti Veliki Britaniji in Franciji na zahodu. Od tam bi bil zadnji pritisk proti njenemu nekdanjemu zavezniku v Sovjetski zvezi, ki bi Hitlerjevemu rajhu dala vso potrebno suženjsko delovno silo, kmetijske vire in naravne vire.

Poljski narod je bil pred prvo svetovno vojno (1914–1918) suverena država, ki so jo nemška, avstrijska in ruska oblast v 19. stoletju kanibalizirale. Šele po vojni in po razpadu nemškega, avstro-ogrskega in otomanskega cesarstva je bila Poljska znova popolna. Tokrat so ji podelili zemljišča iz padlih imperijev (vključno s tistim carske Rusije, ki se je - z notranjo revolucijo - razvila v Sovjetsko zvezo v dvajsetih letih prejšnjega stoletja. Eden ključnih zemljišč je Poljski omogočil dostop do Baltskega morja v sever, čeprav je to ozemlje zdaj ločilo Nemčijo od njenih posesti v Vzhodni Prusiji. Nemci so izgubili tudi pristaniško mesto Danzig, ki je bilo zdaj pod nadzorom in zaščito Društva narodov kot "brezmejno mesto" brez pravega državnega lastnika .

Da bi se izognili še eni dolgi in dragi vojni, sta Britanija in Francija - takrat glavna akterja evropske politike - iskali pot pogajanj o vojni, da bi ukrotili Hitlerjeve muhe, saj so mu že podelili Češkoslovaško. Za Britanijo in Francijo se je izkazalo razumevanje, da se bosta oba naroda, če bi napadli Poljsko, vojaško zavezali Poljakom.

Hitlerjeve nemške sile so na robu vojne štele 60 divizij s 2750 tanki, 2315 letal in 9000 topniških kosov proti poljskim silam 39 divizij, ki so pokrivale 880 tankov, 400 letal in 4300 topniških sistemov. Ko se je Sovjetska zveza zavezala k akciji, je s seboj pripeljala 33 divizij, ki so štele 4736 tankov, 3300 letal in 5000 poljskih pušk vseh vrst. Skupaj je bilo 1,5 milijona nemških vojakov, 466 500 vojakov Rdeče armade in 51 300 slovaških vojakov proti manjši poljski grožnji.

Ob koncu bojev bi bilo ubitih 66.000 poljskih zagovornikov in dodatnih 133.700 do 200.000 ranjenih v akciji. Temu je bilo dodano ponižanje 694.000 poljskih vojakov, ki so jih kot vojne ujetnike ujeli za vojne ujetnike (POW), da bi zaradi lakote, zlorabe ali usmrtitve v številnih zaporniških taboriščih in pohodih smrti, uvedenih po invaziji, videli smrt. Po drugi strani je nemška vojska v bojih uspela izgubiti 16.300, pri čemer je bilo 30.300 ranjenih, medtem ko so se Sovjeti v manj tednih spopadov bolje odrezali s 1.475 na 5.300 ubitih in 2.380 ranjenih. Slovaške sile so izgubile 37 s 114 ranjenimi.

Adolph Hitler je svoje načrte, razen vpletenosti Velike Britanije in Francije, že pripravil, njegovi poveljniki pa so jih dokončali 26. avgusta 1939. Istega meseca je bil s Sovjeti že podpisan pakt o nenapadanju, zadnji ukaz o napadu pa je bil dan 31. avgusta 1939. 1. septembra 1939 so nemške sile vstopile na ozemlje Poljske, da bi uradno začele 2. svetovno vojno.

Hitlerjeva kampanja je temeljila na tehnološki superiornosti in odličnem poveljevanju v prvi moderni vojni. Njegove ofenzive so bile izvedene po doktrini & quotblitzkrieg & quot, ki je vključevala spretno uporabo mehaniziranih kopenskih sil skupaj z ogromno zračno močjo, da bi zagotovila kratko kampanjo. Bombarderji Luftwaffe so nevtralizirali ključno poljsko infrastrukturo, borci pa so nasprotno nasprotovali poljskim borcem. Nemški oklep se je pogajal o cestah in ključnih dušilcih, ki vodijo do strateških poljskih vasi, krajev in mest na njihovem pohodu do glavnega mesta Varšave. Kljub nasprotovanjem Velike Britanije in Francije je Hitler nadaljeval svoje napade in obljubljena vojaška podpora Poljakom ni prišla od zaveznikov. Poljaki so pogumno branili obrambo, kjer je bilo to mogoče, čeprav so taktična gibanja Nemcev zajela množice poljskih zagovornikov. Kateri koli elementi niso bili ujeti v nemškem dežniku, so se umaknili proti vzhodu proti prestolnici. 17. septembra so se razmere na Poljskem poslabšale, ko je Sovjetska zveza sprožila svojo vojsko z vzhoda.

Kljub nepremagljivim možnostim so se zadnji poljski zagovorniki predali 6. oktobra in s tem končali nemško-sovjetsko kampanjo proti Poljski. Vlada je takrat obstajala le v izgnanstvu.

Skupna nemško-sovjetska ofenziva se je končala s skoraj popolno vertikalno delitvijo Poljske, pri čemer je Sovjetska zveza zahtevala vzhod, Nemci pa zahodno polovico. Vzhodna Prusija je bila zdaj povezana z nemškim ozemljem, pristanišče Danzig pa je bilo pod nemškim nadzorom. Poljski narod je spet prenehal obstajati in bo tako ostal do konca vojne leta 1945. Po tem obdobju bo država padla pod komunistično oblast, ki je bila pod sovjetskim vplivom, preden je leta 1989 ponovno opazila svojo neodvisnost sredi padca sovjetskega cesarstva.


V zbirki podatkov o časovnici druge svetovne vojne je skupaj (22) Vdor na Poljsko - časovnica 2. svetovne vojne (1. september 1939 - 6. oktober 1939). Vnosi so spodaj navedeni po naraščajočem datumu nastanka (od prvega do zadnjega). Za perspektivo so lahko vključeni tudi drugi vodilni in zaključni dogodki.


Časovni okvir glavnih dogodkov druge svetovne vojne

Spoznajte glavne dogodke od leta 1918 do 1941, ki so sprožili prvo fazo druge svetovne vojne. Od hudega konca prve svetovne vojne, do vzpona nacistične stranke do brutalne otvoritve nove vojne je bil traumatičen čas biti živ. Bodite priča številnim tem dogodkom v Svet v ognju 1. sezona.

Prva svetovna vojna se konča

Velika Britanija, Francija, ZDA in drugi zavezniki premagajo Nemčijo in tako končajo prvo svetovno vojno, ki se imenuje "vojna za konec vseh vojn".

Hitler imenovan za nemškega vodjo

Adolf Hitler postane kancler Nemčije in kasneje prevzame diktatorska pooblastila. Nemška oborožitev vzleti.

Začne se druga svetovna vojna

Nemčija napada Poljsko in spodbuja poljske zaveznike Veliko Britanijo in Francijo, da Nemčiji objavijo vojno.

Sovjetska zveza vdre na Poljsko

Sovjetski voditelj Jožef Stalin je v sodelovanju s Hitlerjem ukazal invazijo na Poljsko in si tako zagotovil del poljskega ozemlja.

Varšava zavzeta

Varšava se preda nemškim četam. Poljska zdrži še 9 dni, preden kapitulira.

Velika Britanija je zmagala v prvi vojni bitki v vojni

Britanske križarke so v bitki pri River Plateu, prvem večjem pomorskem spopadu druge svetovne vojne, premagale nemško žepno bojno ladjo.

Napad Norveške

Nemčija napada Norveško in s tem konča šestmesečno obdobje omejenih kopenskih operacij, imenovano "lažna vojna".

Churchill postane premier

Winston Churchill nadomešča Neville Chamberlain kot britanski premier. Istega dne Nemčija napadne Belgijo.

Čudež iz Dunkirka

Ujeta britanska vojska se iz francoskega Dunkirka evakuira v Anglijo in preživi v boju še en dan.

Pariški slapovi pred nacisti

Pariz pripada nemškim silam. Francija je kapitulirala 11 dni kasneje.

Britanija se bori za svoje življenje

Bitka pri Britaniji postavlja nemške bombnike proti britanskim lovcem v preprečenem nemškem uvodu v invazijo.

ZDA so padle v vojno

Japonska je napadla Pearl Harbor in začela vojno z ZDA. Hitler začuti šibkost in 4 dni pozneje napoveduje vojno Ameriki.

Glasilo MASTERPIECE

Prijavite se, če želite prejemati najnovejše novice o vaših najljubših dramah in skrivnostih, pa tudi o ekskluzivni vsebini, videu, nagradni igri in še več.


6. september 1939 - Zgodovina

Gospod: Nezakonito priseljevanje v Palestino, v čast mi je obvestiti ministrstvo, se kljub vojnim razmeram nadaljuje. Namen te pošiljke je na kratko opozoriti na spremenjene vidike problema zaradi vojne in hkrati posodobiti kronologijo dogodkov na tem področju v generalnem konzulatu, katerih zadnja poglavja so bila dana v pošiljke št. 978 z dne 26. junija 17 1018 z dne 21. julija in 1031 z dne 7. avgusta 1939. 18 To priložnost bom še izkoristil, da bom v najverjetnejši interes oddelka, saj generalni konzulat zastopa interese Paname , seznam panamskih ladij, za katere je znano, da so sodelovale ali da palestinske oblasti domnevno sodelujejo v tem prometu.

Preden nadaljujemo z razpravo o nezakonitem priseljevanju, bi bilo morda koristno na kratko pregledati trenutne predpise, ki urejajo zakonit vstop priseljencev. Zakonito priseljevanje za obdobje od 1. aprila do 30. septembra 1939 ureja odlok o priseljevanju z dne 15. junija 1939, o katerem so podrobnosti poročali v telegramu generalnega konzulata z dne 16. junija in odpošiljanju z dne 26. junija 1939. Ta odlok določa za izdajo v polletju 10.950 imigracijskih spričeval, od tega 10.350 za Jude. Od teh 10.350 za Jude, 5.000 predstavlja polovico letne kvote 10.000, preostanek pa je namenjen beguncem kot 25.000, ki jih je treba sprejeti v skladu z določbami Bele knjige. 1300 Judov, za katere je znano, da so nezakonito vstopili v državo med 1. aprilom in 24. majem, datumom priprave odloka, so bili odšteti od vseh spričeval za Jude, tako da jim je za zadevni semester na voljo 9.050 potrdil. Zaradi naraščajoče hitrosti, s katero so Judje nezakonito vstopili v državo, je kolonialni sekretar 12. julija v spodnjem domu sporočil, da bo vse judovsko priseljevanje v Palestino v naslednjem kvotnem obdobju od 1. oktobra 1939 do marca prekinjeno. 31. 1940 in morda celo dlje. V depešah generalnega konzulata z dne 21. julija in 7. avgusta 1939 so poročali o skrajni zagrenjenosti in razočaranju, ki jih je v judovskih krogih povzročila ta objava, in poskušali podati sliko dveh nasprotujočih si sil, judovske in britanske, pripravljene za boj proti priseljenstvu.

To je bilo torej stanje v večnem problemu Palestine, ko je bila vojna razglašena 3. septembra. Kako bodo vojne razmere vplivale na to?

Kar zadeva zakonito priseljevanje, trenutno ni znakov, da bi vojno spremenilo status quo. Malo verjetno je, da se bo odločitev vlade, da v naslednjem kvotnem obdobju ustavi priseljevanje Judov, spremenila. Kar zadeva nezakonit promet, pa je situacija precej drugačna in je treba upoštevati številne možnosti. Nekateri takšni negotovi elementi so: ali bo nemška vlada dovolila ali celo pomagala judovskim ženskam in otrokom ter starejšim, da zapustijo Italijo ali Donavo, ali bo romunska vlada dovolila poljskim Judom, da prečkajo Romunijo za odhod čez Donavo, ali so nemški in Ruska okupacija Poljske bo prisilila poljske Jude, da zapustijo državo in poiščejo zatočišče, kjer lahko, ali bodo druge vlade izkoristile to priložnost za deportacijo Judov in ali bodo rumeni in madžarski Judje zaradi žalostne usode Judov na Češkoslovaškem in Poljskem zbežali pred grožnjo.

Ne glede na odgovore na ta vprašanja se bo iz tehtanja vseh dejavnikov in možnosti pokazalo, da je verjetnost zmanjšanja prometa v bližnji prihodnosti majhna. Kot je povedal častnik oddelka za kriminalistične preiskave, zadolžen za delo nezakonitega priseljenca, "ne vidim, da je vojna končala naš problem nezakonitega priseljenstva". To stališče potrjuje dejstvo, da so od izbruha sovražnosti v Palestino vstopile tri ladje nezakonitih priseljencev, za druge pa je znano, da plujejo po vzhodnem Sredozemlju in iščejo zatočišče. Verjetno bodo glavna pristanišča za vkrcanje nezakonitih priseljencev zdaj črnomorska pristanišča v Bolgariji in Romuniji.

Vojne razmere lahko povzročijo spremembo vrste priseljencev, ki vstopajo v državo, tako legalno kot ilegalno. Priseljenci bodo verjetno vedno bolj prihajali iz Madžarske in Romunije, prej pa iz Nemčije in Poljske. Vstop priseljencev, posebej usposobljenih za življenje v Palestini, in drugih, ki so jih judovska agencija in revizionisti izbrali iz političnih razlogov, bo otežen, če ne celo nemogoč. Dejansko je kolonialni sekretar že pred izbruhom vojne opozoril Jude na dejstvo, da nezakonito priseljevanje otežuje vstop izbranih priseljencev. Pričakuje se tudi, da se bo odstotek moških med nezakonitimi vstopniki zmanjšal zaradi omejitev, uvedenih v zaratovalnih državah. Nazadnje bodo skoraj vsi priseljenci, ki pridejo pod temi pogoji, popolnoma obubožani, kar bo še bolj finančno obremenilo Palestino in ameriško Judovstvo. Pogojev ni mogoče pripisati vojni, saj je večina priseljencev, ki so prispeli od začetka množičnega nezakonitega priseljevanja, revna.

Kar zadeva dolgoročni učinek vojne na judovsko priseljenje in Narodni dom, seveda ni mogoče predvideti. Zdi se, da Judje na splošno zavzemajo oportunistično držo in čeprav še vedno odločno zavračajo sprejetje določb Bele knjige, se zdi, da menijo, da sodelovanje z Veliko Britanijo v sedanji krizi ponuja najboljše možnosti za dosego njihovega končnega cilja . Arabci pa kažejo vse večjo zaskrbljenost, da bo Velika Britanija, kot so nekateri rekli, "prodala" Judom zaradi pomena mednarodnega Judovstva pri pregonu vojne.

Nezakonito priseljevanje, ki naj ponovno prevzame uvodno izjavo o dogodkih, ki so bili poslani v pošiljki generalnega konzulata 21. julija, se je povečalo. Približno 5000 drugih nezakonitih priseljencev je v Palestino vstopilo na naslednjih sedmih ladjah:

SS Colorado, 519 ton, ki pluje pod panamsko zastavo, je bil 29. julija aretiran in odpeljan v Haifo s 378 priseljenci.

Neznana ladja je svojih 297 nezakonitih priseljencev postavila v majhne čolne izven teritorialnih voda in jih 10. avgusta poslala na obalo.

SS Aghios Nicolaus, v grški lasti, je na morje prestavil 840 priseljencev na motorno plovilo, jadrnico in škuno ter jih 19. avgusta poslal na obalo.

SS Parita, 800 ton, ki pluje pod panamsko zastavo, je bila 23. avgusta namerno nameščena v Tel-Avivu s 700 priseljenci. Plavali so ga potniki, kapitan in posadka, ki so pobegnili z majhnim čolnom.

SS Tiger Hill, ki pluje pod panamsko zastavo, je bil 2. septembra v Tel-Avivu z 1205 priseljenci. Oblasti so na ladjo streljale, zaradi česar sta umrla dva potnika.

Bolgarski register SS Rudnitchan, 160 ton, je 364 priseljencev izven teritorialnih voda premestil v pet reševalnih čolnov in jih 16. septembra poslal na obalo.

SS Noemi Julia, 1300 ton, ki pluje pod panamsko zastavo, se je 19. septembra 1939 zasidralo v Haifi z več kot 1200 nezakonitimi priseljenci.

Tako je od pošiljanja generalnega konzulata 21. julija znano, da je približno 5.000 oseb nezakonito vstopilo v Palestino, kar skupaj od 1. aprila, na začetku obdobja kvot, pomeni več kot 9.700 oseb. Dejansko bo to število večje, saj ne vključuje oseb, ki so se posamezno izognile mejni kontroli, ali tistih, ki so vstopili kot začasni obiskovalci in bivali nezakonito. Od več kot 9.700 znanih do danes nezakonitih vstopov je bilo 1300 odštetih od sedanje kvote, približno 8400 pa od prihodnjih kvot. Tako bo, kot je bilo napovedano na strani 6 pošiljanja generalnega konzulata z dne 26. junija, približno 20.000 Judov zakonito in nezakonito vstopilo v Palestino v sedanjem obdobju kvot ali več kot četrtina petletne kvote, določene v Beli knjigi.

Preprečevanje vstopa nezakonitih priseljencev postaja vse težje zaradi novih taktik, sprejetih pri prevozu ladij. Te nove taktike so bodisi premestitev priseljencev na morje na majhne čolne bodisi dovoljenje potnikom, da sami plujejo na ladjah, potem ko jih je posadka zapustila. V nobenem primeru ni mogoče aretirati nikogar, razen priseljencev, ki jih je le redko mogoče deportirati in jih običajno kmalu po aretaciji izpustijo, prav tako ni nobenega plovila, ki bi ga bilo vredno zapleniti, saj so ladje na plaži in majhni čolni skoraj ničvredni.

Sledi seznam panamskih ladij, ki so jih oblasti že prijele ali za katere menijo, da še delujejo. Te ladje naj bi bile prenesene iz grške pod panamsko zastavo zaradi nedavnega grškega zakona, ki prepoveduje uporabo grških ladij v prometu pri ilegalnih priseljencih. Ta seznam je generalnemu konzulatu zaupno predložil uradnik palestinske vlade, ki je [Stran 806] zadolžen za delo na področju nezakonitega priseljevanja v oddelku za kriminalistične preiskave.

1) SS Fossoula, nekdanji Kilbane, prej Leman, naj bi prevažal ilegalne priseljence, vendar ni znano, kje se nahaja. 2) SS Dora , formerly Tsaldur , whereabouts unknown, said to have several hundred on board. 3) SS Noemi Julia , 1300 tons, flying the Panamanian flag, cast anchor off Haifa on September 19, 1939, with more than 1200 on board, is being detained by the authorities. 4) SS Varko , formerly Nelson , whereabouts unknown, believed to be carrying immigrants. 5) SS Parita , beached at Tel-Aviv and confiscated as indicated earlier in this despatch. 6) SS Tiger Hill , formerly Kypros , beached at Tel-Aviv and confiscated as mentioned earlier in this despatch. 7) SS Rim , burned off Rhodes on July 6, its passengers having eventually entered Palestine on the Aghios Nicolaus on August 19. 8) SS Colorado , detained pending hearings after having been arrested and taken into Haifa on July 29 with 378 immigrants on board. 9) SS Las Perlas , captured near Nathanya on July 2 with 378 on board, confiscated by the Palestine Government. 10) SS Liesel , formerly Myconos , apprehended on June 1 with 906 on board, confiscated by the Palestine Government (reported in the Consulate General’s telegram of June 3 and despatch of June 26). 11) SS Attrato , formerly Irini , formerly Vernicon , apprehended May 29, with 401 on board, being detained pending hearings (also reported in telegram of June 3 and despatch of June 26).


September 1939: has Germany lost the war already?

without a navy, poor logistics and active rebellions in multiple areas it was only a matter of time before german influence totally crumbled and maybe Hitler is overthrown as economic situation gets worse in the reich

Deleted member 1487

The Italians couldn't even interdict Malta themselves, the Luftwaffe is already spoken for in 1940, and the British were able to operate Force K out of Malta with ease. Having Tunisia as a base would only make things that much worse for the Italians, who were already afraid to leave port. Besides bases from Tunisia were close to Libya than Sicily or Italy was.

How is the German army going to land in Tunisia? By air? The French air force with French help prevents that they only got in in November 1942 because the French in Tunisia were caught by surprise and didn't resist. In 1940 they wouldn't be caught by surprise plus would the Italians even let the Germans in? How quickly could them move south given the serious losses the Fallschirmjager and Ju52 fleet took in the Netherlands? The 22nd Airlanding division was also hit and then fought as ground infantry in France, taking further losses. Both the FJ and 22nd division took until 1941 before they were ready for further combat.
https://books.google.com/books?id=m. 6AEIcDAK#v=onepage&q=ju52 losses 1940&f=false

It will cause Libya to fall given it was the major port in the colony.

Again, by what forces arriving how and by when?

I mean the BoB is probably more important to Hitler's strategy than a Mediterranean campaign at that point, especially given Mussolini's view of it as 'his' theater where the Germans weren't allowed until nearly too late.

Catspoke

This is an interesting discussion worth a thread on its own.

Assuming:
The Luftwaffe just moved south after the Battle of France ended, and Italy under duress was willing to let the Germans move in to southern Italy.

OTL in 1940 the Italians were able to ship stuff to Libya without interference. (ULTRA not ready, Malta still raw). Lets assume German air strength cancels extra French naval strength and the Italians are able to ship stuff still. Lots of questions:

a) Could the Germans/Italians really pull off a direct assault on French ports or airfields in Tunisia and reinforce?
b) At some point would Germans advancing out of Tunisia would run into serious supply issues trying to advance west forward Algeria?
c) Would there be enough air and sea lift capacity to supply an Axis army around Tobruk and in Tunisia?
d) Would this preclude an Italian invasion of Greece?
e) Would Mussolini looker smarter or dumber than OTL? (in this TL he has a large occupation zone in France)
f) Does Spain join the Axis? (Germany can offer unlimited rewards of gains at France's expense, impossible in OTL)
g) As questioned above, does France resist Japanese incursions in Indochina starting in September 1940, preempting USA entry later)

I could see a time line where this is so much worse for France:
a) Germany is embroiled in a west african campaign
b) Germany doesn't feel like she has the strength to do Barbarossa too.
c) USA never enters.
d) Germany subjects France to the most brutal occupation (i.e. like Poland)
e) This occupation goes on for 10+ years.

Hipper

Glenn239

They were not staring at defeat either
at best , germany holds on to continental power while british cripple their trade and soviets block any german eastward expansion

while brits at the same time sap the energy of the over streched germans by aiding "resistance" movements throughout europe

without a navy, poor logistics and active rebellions in multiple areas it was only a matter of time before german influence totally crumbled and maybe Hitler is overthrown as economic situation gets worse in the reich

Glenn239

Hipper

what's unfeasible about the UK developing the atomic bomb

Deleted member 1487

Hipper

Glenn239

If the Luftwaffe is "already spoken for" in 1940 then the scenario gets more plausible for the Anglo-French. If the Luftwaffe is not already spoken for, then the scenario gets pretty bleak for the French in North Africa. Now, I'm not going to suggest that the BoB would be cancelled because France fights on because I literally have no idea and attacking Britain makes some sense even with the French in. But the invasion of Russia does get less considerably less feasible if the Anglo-French are dominating in the Med in late 1940.

I'm not questioning that. I'm saying that whether Tripoli does or does not fall is not going to decide a North African campaign where France is fighting from North Africa.

That all would depend on a bunch of factors, such as how much "stuff" France got out of France in the first place.

Deleted member 1487

Hipper

er no they did both, its just that in OTL the project mostly took place in the US who did things very expensively , looking at the Maud committees report the prices look quite reasonable

Deleted member 1487

Why would the situation get bleak for the French in Africa? They had the naval and air bases and together with the British would be unassailable from Sardinia and Sicily.

With what navy and air force? The French could defend Tunisia very easily, while the infrastructure to use Sardinia and Sicily for an aircraft (let alone an offensive bombing/air superiority campaign) didn't exist yet. Even in 1942 it only worked because the French were caught by surprise by the German move after Vichy was occupied suddenly and they didn't resist.

Why wouldn't it? It was the largest Axis port available and losing it means the Axis forces cannot sustain themselves in North Africa. Taking Tunisia by sea invasion is impossible given the forces the French and British could muster to defend it from invasion, which was far greater than Italy and Germany combined could field in the area.

They had a large force already in North Africa pre-war and were already evacuating large numbers of aircraft to North Africa.

Again why? The Axis lacked the basing and forces to invade Tunisia. The Luftwaffe was limited in how much it could put in to the region and it is unclear if Mussolini would even want them.

Glenn239

The situation would be bleak for the French in Africa because they'd beak weak on the ground already, they'd have no industrial base of support in France, no source of supplies or war material. The British have nothing to spare for them in 1940.

I don't think the French could hold Tunisia against a determined German offensive in the fall of 1940 unless the Luftwaffe was fully committed to the BoB and unavailable for support.

If Tripoli fell to the Allies, the Germans take Tunisia and Malta and then retake Tripoli. Alternatively, what you're suggesting would be that Germany is content with Africa in Anglo-French hands while the offensive into Russia was launched on schedule after the BoB, such that the whole North African thing is too far down the list and is delayed. That might be the case - if the BoB goes ahead and then Barbarossa, the North African campaign might go to the favor of the Anglo-French.

Aircraft need spares and all sorts of logistics support, the most important of which is a 1,000 planes a month from factories in France. If the Luftwaffe goes at Tunisia full strength, the French air strength will quickly collapse because losses can't be replaced and supplies would be scarce.

Deleted member 1487

Hm. the US orders France had already paid for? They also had billions of dollars of gold in US banks as well. The US was their supplier, as well as the entire empire. Plus again, it isn't as if the empire and North Africa in particular (France's 4th Shore) already wasn't a base of military power:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_Africa_(France)#World_War_II
Plus Syria-Lebanon:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syria–Lebanon_Campaign

The 1940 armistice had limited the Vichy French forces, named l’ Armee de l’ Armistice, in North Africa to 120,000 men, with 55,000 in Morocco, 50,000 in Algeria and 15,000 in Tunisia. They were for the most part native troops officered by Frenchmen. Although ammunition was short and equipment obsolete, their fighting calibre was high.

During the time of Operation Torch the French Air Force had some 500 aircraft based on five airfields in Morocco, all within easy range of Casablanca, and various other fields in Algeria and Tunisia, which were in easy striking distance of the ports. Although those aircraft were deemed obsolete, the quality of their fighters was better than the Allied carrier-borne types.
In Morocco there were two fighter, two reconnaissance and four bomber groups plus two flotillas of naval aircraft and two transport groups.
In Algeria the Vichy Air Force consisted of three fighter, one reconnaissance and three bomber groups with one flotilla of naval aircraft.
In Tunisia a small presence was maintained by one fighter, two bomber and one reconnaissance group with one unit of naval flying boats.
A group was usually formed from two escadrilles, which normally consist of 12 aircraft.

Of even greater concern was the French naval strength in the area. Although Bizerta and Oran held only submarines and destroyers, there were a 6-inch cruiser, destroyers and an immobile battleship capable of firing its guns at Casablanca, together with a battleship and three cruisers at Dakar.
The fleet in Toulon (Southern France), with its three capital ships, seven cruisers, 28 destroyers and 15 submarines, could also not be excluded from the calculations for Operation Torch.

Again from what bases? German fighters couldn't maintain air superiority, nor could Italian bases provide them with what they'd need to launch an air offensive powerful enough to resist French defenders and naval forces.

Based on? It's not like there was a mighty German fleet ready in the Mediterranean to take Tunisia in 1940.

Marathag

Three Problems
Let us briefly look at three seemingly overwhelming problems that had to solved if the gaseous diffusion method was to work. These examples show the ingenuity that expressed itself over and over during the Manhattan Project.
Prvi was to find someone to design and manufacture large metal diffusers, containers in which the barrier material that would separate the isotopes would be placed. On March 20, 1943 K.T. Keller, the President of Chrysler was contacted and a meeting with Groves, Nichols, and Keith took place in Detroit on April 2nd. KT was quite a figure in his own right. Born dirt poor in 1885 he pulled himself up by his bootstraps and after working at General Motors for 14 years came to Chrysler. He was a tough character, knew everything about Chrysler and was made president in 1935. KT was briefed that several thousand of these diffusers would be needed and they had to be able to resist the highly corrosive uranium hexafluoride gas. The only material that would resist the gas was nickel. Making them out of solid nickel was out of the question as it would have consumed the entire national supply. The logical solution was to plate steel with nickel. The attempts thus far had not worked as the gas ate through the plating. Chrysler was known for its plating innovations and KT accepted the challenge, and received a $75 million contract. He gave the problem to Dr. Carl E. Heussner the Director of the plating laboratory and the problem was solved in less than two months by the end of May. Within Chrysler the secret project was known as X-100. To manufacture and plate the diffusers Chrysler converted a Dodge automobile plant (then making tank transmissions and truck parts) known as the Lynch Road factory in eastern Detroit. Absolute cleanliness standards were imposed. Chrysler would eventually deliver over 3,500 of diffusers to K-25.

The second problem
had to do with designing and manufacturing compressor pumps to force the gas through the cascades at high velocity. The crucial problem was that the pumps needed to have seals ** that were leak proof. They had to be resistant to the corrosive gas and work without any lubricants which would contaminate the process. Groves went to Allis-Chalmers, of Milwaukee, WI which was already building the gigantic magnets for Y-12. They were told to build a pump plant — and did so in 57 days beginning in April 1943 — but without the precise design for the pump, a typical Manhattan Project procedure. Dobie Keith recruited George Watts, the chief engineer of Standard Oil of Indiana, who was given primary responsibility and Groves called President Edward Seubert to have him released. The pump was actually invented by Judson Swearingen and Allis-Chalmers delivered 7,000 compressors to Oak Ridge on time.

The third problem
was to design and produce a porous barrier or membrane that would allow the lighter U-235 atoms of the uranium hexafluoride gas to pass through but not the heavier U-238 ones and not be destroyed in the process. Much of the work was done at Columbia University. The holes had to be tiny, one-ten thousandth of a millimeter, could not become clogged, and must be tough enough to withstand high pressures. The preliminary designs were thumb-sized while several million square feet of the material eventually would be needed. One promising candidate was the Norris-Adler barrier, but the design ran into problems at the Columbia pilot plant. The material was brittle and the holes got clogged. A competing design was offered by Clarence Johnson, a Kellex engineer, with much help from others. Groves was faced with choosing which design would be used to produce on a mass scale. He initially chose the Norris-Adler design and hoped there would be improvements and a plant in Decatur, Illinois was being built to produce it. But by January 1944 the design looked less promising. After an all night drive through Indiana and half of Illinois Groves arrived at the Decatur factory for a meeting. He announced his decision to the startled executives and ordered the almost finished plant stripped of the just-installed equipment and rebuilt to manufacture the Johnson-Kellex barrier material. By the summer of 1944 large quantities of the material were being shipped to the Lynch Road facility to be placed inside the diffusers and from there on to K-25.

K-25 made a valuable contribution to producing the uranium that went into the Little Boy bomb. On January 20, 1945 the first stages were charged with hexafluoride and throughout the next few months more stages were added. The production control committee produced a detailed plan at the end of February to integrate the three enrichment processes which occurred on March 12th. The S-50 liquid thermal diffusion plant, using convection to separate the isotopes in thousands of tall columns, was built next to the K-25 power plant, which provided the necessary steam. The S-50 output of approximately one percent was used as feed for K-25 which enriched it further to 7 percent and increasingly by the summer to over 20 percent. The K-25 feed was introduced into the Y-12 calutrons where it was further enriched to approximately 80 percent U-235. In this way 64 kilograms of HEU ended up in the Little Boy bomb.
After the World War II gaseous diffusion became the preferred method for enriching uranium in the U.S. and a level of 93.6 percent U-235 was set. At Oak Ridge between January 1946 and June 1954 K-27, K-29, K-31 and K-33 were added to K-25. By the mid-1950s the interconnected complex formed one continuous cascade of 5,098 stages and by 1964 had produced 349 metric tons of U-235 (out of a total of 858 tons) according to a recently declassified DOE historical report on HEU production.

The total cost to build and operate K-25 was $512 million, which is approximately $10.7 billion in today’s dollars. employed 12,000 workers

Two additional gaseous diffusion plants were built. The 1,812-stage Paducah plant in Paducah, Kentucky was completed in 1954. While it never produced HEU it did enrich uranium to 1 percent and then shipped it to Oak Ridge and Portsmouth for further enrichment. The 4,080-stage Portsmouth plant in Piketon, Ohio was completed in 1956. The AEC discontinued HEU production for weapons in 1964
K-25 3122 stages by 1945
K-33 went on stream in mid 1954 and it’s dimensions were awesome. The single building was 81 ft. high, covered more than 32 acres, had two floors and a partial basement. It’s part of the cascade consisted of the main feed facility which fed the low grade uranium, 640 separation stages each one made up of a converter the size of a small house which contained 4000 individual barrier tubes(tube bundle), an axial compressor and a 2000HP GE or Westinghouse electric motor. The motors were each mounted on a 3ft high slab of concrete and were the size of a compact car. The pipes made of monel steel were one each 60″ diameter, 24″ diameter and 18″ diameter.
The supply voltage to each of the 640 stages was 4480AC and during normal cascade operation would float around 600-800 amps. On down surges which were infrequent I’ve seen all the stages in a cell pinned at 1000 amps. When the single plant was completed and online it used more electric power than the city of Chicago

Estimated 7300MW usage
K-25, K-27 (Jan 1946 for low enrichment feed to K-25, replace S-50) to Y-12 Betas thru 1946
planned in 1948 K-29, K-31 and K-33(2.8 million ft2 online mid 1954) made 349 metric tons of HEU by 1964

The smaller (1812 stage) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Kentucky, had a peak power load of 3040 MWe. 1% enrichment to both Oak Ridge and Portsmouth. 70% of production cost at Paducah was electricity.
Trucks between Oak Ridge and Paducah ran 24/7. Eighteen wheelers with a specially prepared trailer hauled three 10 ton cylinders of low grade U-235 from Oak Ridge to Paducah, loaded their tails product back onto the trailer and brought those cylinders back to Oak Ridge to be fed back into the cascade in the feed facility in K-33. Effectively the Paducah cascade was a stripping facility for the K-33 operation

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant 4080 stages 2100MW

Hoover Dam 2080MW, approx 4 billion KWh year
At Y-12, the average monthly power usage is less than approximately 30 to 40 megawatts (MWe). The available capacity, approximately 430 MWe, greatly exceeds current demands. This is due to the fact that the original uses of Y-12 required a large, robust electrical system to support the uranium enrichment mission

** Now those seals were Teflon

The discovery of Teflon™ is an example of serendipity. Serendipity means a kind of “happy accident” – an unintended discovery. In our story, the chemical firm, DuPont, and General Motors (GM) were collaborating to develop improved refrigerants. GM was not just interested in automobile air conditioning they had also owned the home and industrial refrigeration firm, Frigidaire, for about sixty years. Early refrigeration units used costly (and potentially hazardous) coolants, including propane, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide. The two companies teamed up to form Kinetic Chemicals and evaluated various chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) we often refer to as Freon.

Freon 114 was put into mass production for GM, which used 100% of DuPont’s output. In the late 1930s, DuPont needed to develop another refrigerant it could sell to other companies. They hired Roy Plunkett, who had just completed his Ph.D. at Ohio State.

One of Plunkett’s experiments involved reacting tetrafluoroethylene (TFE—a colorless, odorless gas made from chloroform) with hydrochloric acid. The concoction was stored in metal cylinders and kept on ice to minimize the risk of explosion. Plunkett’s assistant connected one of these cylinders, in which about 100 pounds of the new material was stored, to the test apparatus and found that nothing would flow out of the cylinder. The pressure in the cylinder had dropped to zero! There was no leak— the cylinder weighed just what it had weighed previously. Plunkett sawed open the cylinder and discovered a slippery material with fascinating physical properties.

DuPont followed up on this discovery with research on its potential applications and ways to manufacture it at a commercial scale. The timing was right for an application known then as polymerized tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Few of us think of this term when we use a Teflon™ coated frying pan!

But frying pans aren’t the impact on “the course of world history” that I promised you! The largest secret industrial project during WWII was the Manhattan project.
.
money flowed freely, and massive parallel projects in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Hanford, Washington, and Los Alamos, New Mexico, were rapidly designed and constructed. The population around the Oak Ridge buildings grew from a few thousand to 75,000 in a few years, and the largest building in the world — K-25 — was constructed. Among other goals at Oak Ridge, significant quantities of U-235 had to be separated from the dominant U-238 isotope. U-235 is slightly lighter than U-238, and uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6) can be processed from uranium ore relatively easily. The gas diffusion process used in Oak Ridge required enormous numbers of vessels and filters and consumed a great deal of electrical power. This process has since been replaced by techniques involving centrifuges.

UF6 (known as “hex”) is highly corrosive. It would destroy conventional seals, fittings and valves. As it turns out, DuPont was selected to design the gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge. PTFE was used to coat the piping and valves and eliminated the corrosion problems. Without PTFE, some have argued that the development of the atomic bomb would have been delayed at least an additional six months. Such a delay could have caused the US to pursue a direct attack on the Japanese mainland. This, of course, would have massively changed the course of history.

DuPont reserved 100% of their PTFE production for the military, with the majority of it going to Oak Ridge. Following the war, DuPont pursued numerous applications of the promising chemical. The name, Teflon, was trademarked in 1944.


The List of Battles in 1939

Battle of Nanchang (March 17 – May 9, 1939) – Japanese forces defeat Nationalist Chinese forces in the 2nd Sino-Japanese War

Battle of Suixian-Zaoyang (May 24, 1939) – Chinese counterattack successful against the Japanese.

Battle of Khalkhin Gol (May 1, 1939 – September 16,1939)–Soviet forces defeat the Japanese.

German Invasion of Poland (September 1, 1939-October 6, 1939) – Start of World War II in Europe, German victory.
Battle of the Bzura River/Battle of Kutno (September 9– September 19, 1939)–Part of the German Invasion of Poland

Battle of Hel (September 9 – October 2, 1939)–Part of the German Invasion of Poland

Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski (September 17– September 26, 1939)–Part of the German Invasion of Poland

Battle of Warsaw (September 8– September 28, 1939)–Part of the German Invasion of Poland

First Battle of Changsha (September 17 –October 6, 1939) Chinese forces successfully defend the city of Changsha, inflicting heavy Japanese casualties.

Battle of Kock (October 2–October 5, 1939)–Final battle of the German Invasion of Poland

Battle of Tolvajärvi (December 12, 1939) – Colonel Paavo Talvela’s Finnish forces defeat Soviet Union forces. Part of the Winter Wa r between Finland and the Soviet Union.

Battle of Suomussalmi (December 8, 1939 – January 7, 1940). Finnish forces beat back invading Soviet troops. Part of the Winter War b etween Finland and the Soviet Union.

Battle of the River Plate (December 13, 1939) – British ships battled the German ship, the Admiral Graf Spee in the harbor of Montevideo, Uruguay. The Germans later scuttled their ship. This was the was the first major naval battle of World War Two .

First Battle of Summa (December 16 – December 22, 1939) – Soviet victory during the Winter War .

Sources of 1939 Battles:

1. Kohn , George C. Dictionary of Wars . New York: Dejstva o objavah datotek. 1999.


This is 19 hours of audio on one CD, in the form of MP3 files.

Here is the itinerary of the broadcast:

6:30 Sundial with Arthur Godfrey (music)

8:30 Certified Magic Carpet (quiz show)

8:45 Bachelor's Children (soap)

9:00 Pretty Kitty Kelly (soap)

9:15 The Story of Myrt & Marge (soap)

10:00 Mary Lee Taylor (soap)

10:15 Brenda Curtis (soap, featuring Agnes Moorehead)

10:45 Aunt Jenny's True Life Stories (soap that Bob & Ray loved to parody)

11:00 Jean Abbey (news for women)

11:15 When a Girl Marries (soap)

11:30 The Romance of Helen Trent (soap)

12:00 The Goldbergs (comedy)

12:15 Life Can Be Beautiful (soap)

12:45 This Day Is Ours (soap)

1:15 The Life & Love of Dr. Susan (soap)

1:30 Your Family and Mine (soap)

2:00 President Roosevelt's Address to Congress (speech)

2:40 Premier Edouard Daladier

3:00 Address Commentary (news)

3:15 The Career of Alice Blair (soap)

4:00 Baseball: Cleveland Indians at Washington Senators (sports)

5:15 The World Dances (music)

6:15 The Parker Family (comedy)

7:30 Strange as it Seems (true stories)

8:00 Major Bowes' Original Amateur Hour (variety)

9:00 The Columbia Workshop - "Now It's Summer" (drama)

9:30 Americans at Work (true stories)

11:30 Teddy Powell Band (music)

12:00 Louis Prima Orchestra (music)

12:30 Bob Chester Orchestra (music

WJSV's call letters once belonged to another radio station that went on the air in 1928. The original WJSV was located in Mt Vernon Hills,Virginia (and in conflicting data Alexandria, or Washington DC) on the dial at 1460 AM (FM broadcast wasn't viable until 1946). According to legend the folks in the original broadcast area believed the call letters were an acronym that stood for "Jesus Saves Virginia" but actually stood for James S. Vance (general manager of the Fellowship Forum--). In the early '40s, the station became WTOP. Even though many stations call letters were assigned by the government you'll find a many stations used slogan acronyms to determine these.

Harry C. Butcher (1910-59), who was a Naval Aide to President Dwight Eisenhower, was Manager of radio station WJSV (later WTOP) in Washington D.C. from 1932-1934 and Vice President in charge of WJSV from 1934-1942 . WJSV was a CBS affiliate and in 1939 recorded its entire broadcast day (no small feat in the pre-audio tape era).

I love this so much. I have downloaded hundreds if not thousands of items from archive.org. If I lost every one and could only re-download one more item, this would be it.

I was born almost 40 years after this day, but the atmosphere these recordings generate to anyone sympathetic to the period is overwhelming and humbling.

Really, REALLY enjoyed these! The music is great, and its such a pleasure to listen to a full day of what people back in '39 would've heard by tuning in their radios.

I saw a reviewer mention that the Wizard of Oz song "You're Out Of The Woods" played in here, but I haven't been able to find where it plays, only heard "In the Merry Old Land Of Oz". Anyone mind elaborating on what part "You're Out of the Woods" plays?

Thanks again for posting this wonderful collection!

I never imagined I could ever get to hear an entire day's broadcasting from 1939. I only wish I could shake the hand of the person who took the decision to record all this. The local nature of the broadcast and the interviews with ordinary people are the most facinating for me. It must have been an absolute joy to listen to such variety on radio in those days.

PS: In answe to 'uncleroy' the number is called 'Stardust' not sure of the artist except to say that the Glenn Miller orchestra and most of the other bands did versions of it, often at quite different tempos. Certainly a great little ditty and one that totally reflects the era. Its almost spooky to think that people actually listened to the early broadcast as they shaved for work or got the youngsters ready for breakfast with cornflakes or maybe wheetos.

For all our technology and advances in medicine I believe people in the first half of the 20th century lived in a much better era.

Prelepo! Delicious! Happiness! Joy! What an incredible and absolute treasure! You'll never get any closer to a time machine than taking a day off, starting this up promptly at 6:00am and listening to the whole thing.

Thank you, 1,000 times, Thank YOU!

It is one of my favorite listens right now. I plan on playing it on Sep. 21st, starting at 6am.

To the person who asked about other reccordings like this. this one, and the D-Day one, are the only ones I have ever heard of, as far as being complete day. but, there are a lot of original broadcasts from stations. that last an hour or 2. you can find them by looking for "radio airchecks". na spletu.

Question. does anyone know what the song at 9 minutes after 6am, is called on this reccording. it's a big band swing tune. love to know what it is.

And thanks for uploading this wonderful selection.

As a native of DC (although born in 1963), I am enjoying this set immensely. To hear Arthur Godfrey talk about different locations in DC is just incredible and a true history lesson.

For the OTR fan in me, it is just incredible to listen how a typical day of radio was at that time!

This is definitely one of the most amazing documentations of AMERICAN LIFE ever made. its literally like getting in a time machine and travelling back in time - - and to boot, you get to hear your favorite radio shows in the context of when they were aired.

Besides the D-day one, does anybody know if any others like this exist?

Listening to this recorded broadcast gives us a sense of what it was like to live in Washington, D.C. on a fall day in 1939. Much of the news provided throughout the hours is local (commissioners meeting today on the budget a petition to improve Leesburg Pike) as are the announcements (a regatta on the Potomac the jitterbug semifinals of the Harvest Moon Ball an ice cream social hosted by the Grainsville Methodist Church). Area businesses sponsor many of the programs (Zlotnik the Furrier, "at the sign of the big white bear," 12th and G Northwest Coast-In Pontiac, "in the 400 block of Florida Avenue Northeast" Kinsman Optical Company, "since 1900"). Also, a number of the shows are locally originated, such as Sundial with Arthur Godfrey, Certified Magic Carpet (a quiz show aired from the Cabinet Room of the Willard Hotel), and a Washington Senators baseball game from Griffith Stadium.

Nor is the larger world neglected. We hear news throughout the day of the war that broke out in Europe earlier in the month, and there are reports on such topics as the stock market and the cost of foodstuffs nationally. We hear music from artists who are popular throughout the country such as Horace Heidt, Bing Crosby and Artie Shaw. And there are plenty of network shows, including almost twenty soap operas, Amos 'n' Andy, and Major Bowes' Original Amateur Hour.

This fabulous relic of a bygone era would be one of the brightest gems in any old-time radio collection.


Poglej si posnetek: September 1939 - The Caretaker (Januar 2023).

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